Hyperphosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain-associating proteins in the nuclear proteome link transcription to DNA/chromatin modification and RNA processing
ABSTRACT Using an interaction blot approach to search in the human nuclear proteome, we identified eight novel proteins that bind the hyperphosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain (phosphoCTD) of RNA polymerase II. Unexpectedly, five of the new phosphoCTD-associating proteins (PCAPs) represent either enzymes that act on DNA and chromatin (topoisomerase I, DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1) or proteins known to bind DNA (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U/SAF-A, hnRNP D). The other three PCAPs represent factors involved in pre-mRNA metabolism as anticipated (CA150, NSAP1/hnRNP Q, hnRNP R) (note that hnRNP U/SAF-A and hnRNP D are also implicated in pre-mRNA metabolism). Identifying as PCAPs proteins involved in diverse DNA transactions suggests that the range of phosphoCTD functions extends far beyond just transcription and RNA processing. In view of the activities possessed by the DNA-directed PCAPs, it is likely that the phosphoCTD plays important roles in genome integrity, epigenetic regulation, and potentially nuclear structure. We present a model in which the phosphoCTD association of the PCAPs poises them to act either on the nascent transcript or on the DNA/chromatin template. We propose that the phosphoCTD of elongating RNA polymerase II is a major organizer of nuclear functions.
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ABSTRACT: DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1) has an important role in maintaining DNA topology by relaxing supercoiled DNA. Here we show that the K391 and K436 residues of TOP1 are SUMOylated by the PIAS1-SRSF1 E3 ligase complex in the chromatin fraction containing active RNA polymerase II (RNAPIIo). This modification is necessary for the binding of TOP1 to RNAPIIo and for the recruitment of RNA splicing factors to the actively transcribed chromatin, thereby reducing the formation of R-loops that lead to genome instability. RECQ5 helicase promotes TOP1 SUMOylation by facilitating the interaction between PIAS1, SRSF1 and TOP1. Unexpectedly, the topoisomerase activity is compromised by K391/K436 SUMOylation, and this provides the first in vivo evidence that TOP1 activity is negatively regulated at transcriptionally active chromatin to prevent TOP1-induced DNA damage. Therefore, our data provide mechanistic insight into how TOP1 SUMOylation contributes to genome maintenance during transcription.Nature Communications 04/2015; 6:6720. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7720 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin is dynamically changing its structure to accommodate and control DNA-dependent processes inside of eukaryotic cells. These changes are necessarily linked to changes of DNA topology, which might itself serve as a regulatory signal to be detected by proteins. Thus, DNA Topoisomerases may contribute to the regulation of many events occurring during the transcription cycle. In this review we will focus on DNA Topoisomerase functions in transcription, with particular emphasis on the multiplicity of tasks beyond their widely appreciated role in solving topological problems associated with transcription elongation.09/2013; 4(5). DOI:10.4161/trns.26598