Apology, justice, and trauma recovery.

Faculty of Social Work, Centre for Applied Social Research, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street, West Toronto, Ontario M6R 2W9.
The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (Impact Factor: 0.93). 02/2002; 30(3):425-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Recognizing gaps in our present understanding of leader apologies, this investigation examines how followers appraise leader apologies and how these perceptions impact work-related outcomes. Results indicate that followers who viewed their leader as trustworthy or caring before a leader wrongdoing were more likely to perceive their leader’s apology to be sincere, as compared to followers who previously doubted their leader’s trustworthiness and caring. Attributions of apology sincerity affected follower reactions, with followers perceiving sincere apologies reporting greater trust in leadership, satisfaction with supervision, leader–member exchange quality, affective organizational commitment, and forgiveness than those reporting insincere or no apologies. A mediation model was supported, showing that attributions of apology sincerity fostered perceptions of humility, which enhanced perceptions of transformational leadership, and consequently garnered more positive follower reactions.
    Journal of Business Ethics 01/2014; 119(1). · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite an understanding of the perception and consequences of apologies for their recipients, little is known about the consequences of interpersonal apologies, or their denial, for the offending actor. In two empirical studies, we examined the unexplored psychological consequences that follow from a harm-doer's explicit refusal to apologize. Results showed that the act of refusing to apologize resulted in greater self-esteem than not refusing to apologize. Moreover, apology refusal also resulted in increased feelings of power/control and value integrity, both of which mediated the effect of refusal on self-esteem. These findings point to potential barriers to victim–offender reconciliation after an interpersonal harm, highlighting the need to better understand the psychology of harm-doers and their defensive behavior for self-focused motives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Social Psychology 02/2013; 43(1). · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT. Research has generated various definitions of forgiveness, apology, and restitution. We have reviewed the literature Goncerning these constructs and the variables relating to them, specifically in relation to religious leaders that have offended congregations by violating sexual boundaries with congregants. We looked at what forgiveness is and is not. We also looked at apologies and the variables that contribute to their acceptance. Furthermore, we reviewed restitution, including symbolic restitution when concrete restitution is impossible. We suggested apology and restitution can impact the forgiveness process and concluded with ideas for further research, as well as clinical and interpersonal applications, based on the information gleaned from the research on these constructs.
    Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health 11/2008; 10(4):308-327.

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May 23, 2014