Structure, molecular evolution, and gene expression of primate superoxide dismutases.
ABSTRACT Mn- and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNAs of eight primate species, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates lar, Macaca fuscata, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Callithrix jacchus, were cloned. The whole protein-coding sequences were covered, comparing 198 and 153 (or 154) amino acids, for Mn- and Cu,Zn-SODs, respectively. Residues forming metal ligands were completely conserved in the two primate SODs and nucleotide/amino acid substitutions were more frequent in Cu,Zn-SODs than in Mn-SODs. Molecular evolutionary analyses showed Mn-SOD to have evolved at a constant rate and its phylogenetic tree well reflected primate phylogeny. Cu,Zn-SOD was shown to have evolved differently between primate lineages. The significant high ratio of a non-synonymous/synonymous rate was found in the lineage leading to great apes and humans, showing that this lineage underwent positive Darwinian selection. Southern hybridization suggested that the genes for primate Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD exist as single copies. Northern analysis in various Japanese monkey tissues showed Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD expression to be high in the liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands.
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ABSTRACT: The program MODELTEST uses log likelihood scores to establish the model of DNA evolution that best fits the data. AVAILABILITY: The MODELTEST package, including the source code and some documentation is available at http://bioag.byu. edu/zoology/crandall_lab/modeltest.html.Bioinformatics 02/1998; 14(9):817-8. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes a method of transferring fragments of DNA from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate filters. The fragments can then be hybridized to radioactive RNA and hybrids detected by radioautography or fluorography. The method is illustrated by analyses of restriction fragments complementary to ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Xenopus laevis, and from several mammals.Journal of Molecular Biology 12/1975; 98(3):503-17. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the relevant role of models of nucleotide substitution in phylogenetics, choosing among different models remains a problem. Several statistical methods for selecting the model that best fits the data at hand have been proposed, but their absolute and relative performance has not yet been characterized. In this study, we compare under various conditions the performance of different hierarchical and dynamic likelihood ratio tests, and of Akaike and Bayesian information methods, for selecting best-fit models of nucleotide substitution. We specifically examine the role of the topology used to estimate the likelihood of the different models and the importance of the order in which hypotheses are tested. We do this by simulating DNA sequences under a known model of nucleotide substitution and recording how often this true model is recovered by the different methods. Our results suggest that model selection is reasonably accurate and indicate that some likelihood ratio test methods perform overall better than the Akaike or Bayesian information criteria. The tree used to estimate the likelihood scores does not influence model selection unless it is a randomly chosen tree. The order in which hypotheses are tested, and the complexity of the initial model in the sequence of tests, influence model selection in some cases. Model fitting in phylogenetics has been suggested for many years, yet many authors still arbitrarily choose their models, often using the default models implemented in standard computer programs for phylogenetic estimation. We show here that a best-fit model can be readily identified. Consequently, given the relevance of models, model fitting should be routine in any phylogenetic analysis that uses models of evolution.Systematic Biology 09/2001; 50(4):580-601. · 12.17 Impact Factor