Defining the cultural milieu for implementing faculty practice in Pakistan
ABSTRACT Faculty practice can promote a collaborative partnership mutually beneficial to both nursing education and service. However, little is known about its implementation in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for introducing faculty practice within the cultural milieu of Karachi, Pakistan. Focus groups of nursing faculty, staff and students were conducted in various settings: government, semigovernment and private institutions to elicit the data. Data analysis revealed that a more comprehensive definition of faculty practice is needed that will provide the foundation for a culturally acceptable model of faculty practice in Pakistan. Hierarchy dominates the current cultural milieu and must be addressed before faculty practice can be implemented.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (>or= 50%). The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a special group having characteristics most suited for disseminating breast cancer information to the women. We assessed the level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors among registered female nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi. We also identified whether selected factors among nurses were associated with their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, so that relevant measures to improve knowledge of nurses could be implemented. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven teaching hospitals of Karachi using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. A total of 609 registered female nurses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Stager's Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test. Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was categorized into good, fair and poor categories. Ordinal regression was used to identify factors associated with risk knowledge among nurses. Thirty five percent of nurses had good knowledge of risk factors. Graduates from private nursing schools (aOR = 4.23, 95% CI: 2.93, 6.10), nurses who had cared for breast cancer patients (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.99), those having received a breast examination themselves (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.26) or those who ever examined a patient's breast (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.61) were more likely to have good knowledge. A relatively small proportion of the nursing population had good level of knowledge of the breast cancer risk factors. This knowledge is associated with nursing school status, professional breast cancer exposure and self history of clinical breast examination. Since only about one-third of the nurses had good knowledge about risk factors, there is a need to introduce breast cancer education in nursing schools particularly in the public sector. Continuing nursing education at the workplace can be of additional benefit.BMC Nursing 02/2006; 5:6. DOI:10.1186/1472-6955-5-6
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ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study of nurses' perception towards the role of pharmacist in Pakistan healthcare setup. Collaborative care by the healthcare professionals has the potential to improve patient care, enhance patient safety and to reduce workload issues that cause burn out among healthcare professionals. A quantitative (cross-sectional) study design was adopted. A sample of 458 nurses was selected from government hospitals of three cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The study took place from 10 January 2009 to 15 March 2009. Two hundred and sixty-six questionnaires were returned, giving the response rate of (58·07%). Three-fifths of the nurses reported that they had once a day interaction with the pharmacist. Seven-tenths of the nurses expected the pharmacist to take personal responsibility for resolving any drug-related problems. Moreover they appear to have high expectations of the pharmacist, almost nine-tenths regarded pharmacists as knowledgeable drug therapy experts, and almost two-thirds of the nurses emphasized on counselling of patient by the pharmacist. Nurses in Pakistan showed negative perception towards the role of pharmacist in healthcare setting. Although nurses considered pharmacist as a drug information expert but their expectation did not match their experience. A possible factor for this behaviour could be due to nurses' belief that incorporating the role of pharmacist in patient care, may decrease their worth and can result in intrusion into their duties.Journal of Advanced Nursing 06/2011; 68(1):199-205. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05728.x · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of these papers, meta-synthesis of the results was not possible. For this reason, this section of the review is presented in narrative form. In this review, a descriptive study and a textual opinion paper examined the cultural relevancy of borrowed curriculum models, and the global influence of American nursing. Another two opinion papers evaluated the adaptability of another country curriculum models in their countries. Conclusion The evidence regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries is weak because of the paucity of high-quality studies. However, some lower-level evidence suggesting that direct transfer of the curriculum model from one country to another is not appropriate without first assessing the cultural context of both countries. Second, the approach of considering international, regional and local experiences more feasible and presumably a more effective strategy for adapting of a country's curriculum into a culturally or economically different country.International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare 09/2006; 4(3):208-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-6988.2006.00045.x