Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats.

University of Rochester, Department of Environmental Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A (Impact Factor: 1.83). 11/2002; 65(20):1531-43. DOI: 10.1080/00984100290071658
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies with intravenously injected ultrafine particles have shown that the liver is the major organ of their uptake from the blood circulation. Measuring translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to extrapulmonary organs via the blood compartment is hampered by methodological difficulties (i.e., label may come off, partial solubilization) and analytical limitations (measurement of very small amounts). The objective of our pilot study was to determine whether ultrafine elemental carbon particles translocate to the liver and other extrapulmonary organs following inhalation as singlet particles by rats. We generated ultrafine (13)C particles as an aerosol with count median diameters (CMDs) of 20-29 nm (GSD 1.7) using electric spark discharge of (13)C graphite electrodes in argon. Nine Fischer 344 rats were exposed to these particles for 6 h. in whole-body inhalation chambers at concentrations of 180 and 80 microg/m(3); 3 animals each were killed at 0.5, 18, and 24 h postexposure. Six unexposed rats served as controls. Lung lobes, liver, heart, brain, olfactory bulb, and kidney were excised, homogenized, and freeze-dried for analysis of the added (13)C by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Organic (13)C was not detected in the (13)C particles. The (13)C retained in the lung at 0.5 h postexposure was about 70% less than predicted by rat deposition models for ultrafine particles, and did not change significantly during the 24-h postexposure period. Normalized to exposure concentration, the added (13)C per gram of lung on average in the postexposure period was approximately 9 ng/g organ/microg/m(3). Significant amounts of (13)C had accumulated in the liver by 0.5 h postinhalation only at the high exposure concentration, whereas by 18 and 24 h postexposure the (13)C amount of the livers of all exposed rats was about fivefold greater than the (13)C burden retained in the lung. No significant increase in (13)C was detected in the other organs which were examined. These results demonstrate effective translocation of ultrafine elemental carbon particles to the liver by 1 d after inhalation exposure. Translocation pathways include direct input into the blood compartment from ultrafine carbon particles deposited throughout the respiratory tract. However, since predictive particle deposition models indicate that respiratory tract deposits alone may not fully account for the hepatic (13)C burden, input from ultrafine particles present in the GI tract needs to be considered as well. Such translocation to blood and extrapulmonary tissues may well be different between ultrafine carbon and other insoluble (metal) ultrafine particles.

Download full-text


Available from: Christopher Cox, Jul 04, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of silica particles and nanoparticles (NPs) (50 nm and 200 nm) with a neutral and positively charged surface when dispersed in saline, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lung lining fluid (LLF) 24 h post instillation into the lungs of rats. There was a significant increase in the recruitment of neutrophils in animals instilled with 50 nm plain and aminated NPs compared with 200 nm particles when dispersed in saline or BSA, but not when dispersed in LLF. There was no evidence of toxicity or an increase in the albumin content of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunostaining for the transcription factor Nrf2 in BAL cells indicated that there was a significant increase in nuclear colocalisation in animals treated with plain and aminated 50 nm NPs compared with plain and aminated 200 nm particles when dispersed in saline, but no difference was observed between 50 nm and 200 nm aminated particles when dispersed in BSA. There was no difference in nuclear colocalisation with any of the particle types dispersed in LLF. This study suggests that low dose intratracheal exposure to silica nanoparticles can produce an acute inflammatory response and that the dispersion medium may influence the magnitude of this response.
    Toxicology Letters 03/2014; 224(1):147–156. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.10.019 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Air particulate matter has been associated with adverse impact on the respiratory system leading to cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. The biological mechanisms behind these associations may be initiated by inhaled small size particles, particle components (soluble fraction) and/or mediators released by particle-exposed cells (conditioned media). The effect of Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) a surrogate of ambient air pollution, their soluble fractions (SF) and conditioned media (CM) on A549 lung epithelial cells was examined. After 24h exposure to TP (10 and 100 μg/ml), SF or CM, several biological parameters were assayed on cultured A549 cells. We tested cell viability by MTT, superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation by NBT and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF α, IL-6 and IL-8) production by ELISA. UAP-BA particles or its SF (direct effect) did not modify cell viability and generation of O2(-) for any of the doses tested. On the contrary, UAP-BA CM (indirect effect) reduced cell viability and increased both generation of O2(-) and IL-8 production. Exposure to ROFA particles, SF or ROFA CM reduced proliferation and O2(-) but, stimulated IL-8. It is worth to note that UAP-BA and ROFA depicted distinct effects on particle-exposed A549 cells implicating morphochemical dependence. These in vitro findings support the hypothesis that particle-induced lung inflammation and disease may involve lung-derived mediators.
    Toxicology in Vitro 02/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2014.02.011 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The harmful effects of lunar dust (LD) on directly exposed tissues are documented in the literature, whereas researchers are only recently beginning to consider its effects on indirectly exposed tissues. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and transported to the central nervous system. The neurotoxic potential of LD and martian dust (MD) has not yet been assessed. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in most aspects of normal brain function, whereas disturbances in glutamate homeostasis contribute to the pathogenesis of major neurological disorders. The research was focused on the analysis of the effects of LD/MD simulants (JSC-1a/JSC, derived from volcanic ash) on the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The average size of LD and MD particles (even minor fractions) before and after sonication was determined by dynamic light scattering. With the use of radiolabeled l-[(14)C]glutamate, it was shown that there is an increase in l-[(14)C]glutamate binding to isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) in low [Na(+)] media and at low temperature in the presence of LD. MD caused significantly lesser changes under the same conditions, whereas nanoparticles of magnetite had no effect at all. Fluorimetric experiments with potential-sensitive dye rhodamine 6G and pH-sensitive dye acridine orange showed that the potential of the plasma membrane of the nerve terminals and acidification of synaptic vesicles were not altered by LD/MD (and nanoparticles of magnetite). Thus, the unique effect of LD to increase glutamate binding to the nerve terminals was shown. This can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system and cause alterations in the ambient level of glutamate, which is extremely important for proper synaptic transmission. During a long-term mission, a combination of constant irritation due to dust particles, inflammation, stress, low gravity and microgravity, radiation, UV, and so on may consequently change the effects of the dust and aggravate neurological consequences. Key Words: Lunar dust simulant-Martian dust simulant-Volcanic ash-Glutamate binding-Membrane potential-Synaptic vesicle acidification-Glutamatergic neurotransmission-Rat brain nerve terminals. Astrobiology 13, 679-692.
    Astrobiology 08/2013; 13(8). DOI:10.1089/ast.2012.0950 · 2.51 Impact Factor