Impaired adult neurogenesis in mice lacking the transcription factor E2F1.
ABSTRACT During nervous system development the fate of neural stem cells-whether to undergo proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis-is controlled by various signals, such as growth factors. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor E2F1, which is targeted by several signaling cascades that are activated by growth factors, is involved in neurogenesis in the adult brain. When analyzing the brains of E2F1-deficient mice, we found significantly decreased stem cell and progenitor division in the proliferative zones of the lateral ventricle wall and the hippocampus. As a consequence, the production of newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus was decreased. Neuronal cell counts of the adult cerebellum revealed a mild but significant cerebellar atrophy, whereas neocortical neurons were unaffected, suggesting that E2F1 deficiency produces a predominantly postnatal phenotype. The results indicate an involvement of E2F1 in controlling proliferation and neuronal cell numbers in the postnatal and adult brain.
- SourceAvailable from: Cynthia Vied[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurons of the mammalian neocortex are produced by proliferating cells located in the ventricular zone (VZ) lining the lateral ventricles. This is a complex and sequential process, requiring precise control of cell cycle progression, fate commitment and differentiation. We have analyzed publicly available databases from mouse and human to identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in regulating early neocortical development and neurogenesis. We used a mouse in situ hybridization dataset (The Allen Institute for Brain Science) to identify 13 genes (Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, E2f5, Eomes, Hmgn2, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Ssrp1, Tead2, Tgif2) with high correlation of expression in the proliferating cells of the VZ of the neocortex at early stages of development (E15.5). We generated a similar human brain network using microarray and RNA-seq data (BrainSpan Atlas) and identified 407 genes with high expression in the developing human VZ and subventricular zone (SVZ) at 8-9 post-conception weeks. Seven of the human genes were also present in the mouse VZ network. The human and mouse networks were extended using available genetic and proteomic datasets through GeneMANIA. A gene ontology search of the mouse and human networks indicated that many of the genes are involved in the cell cycle, DNA replication, mitosis and transcriptional regulation. The reported involvement of Cdon, Celsr1, Dbi, Eomes, Neurog2, Notch1, Pcnt, Sox3, Tead2 and Tgif2 in neural development or diseases resulting from the disruption of neurogenesis validates these candidate genes. Taken together, our knowledge-based discovery method has validated the involvement of many genes already known to be involved in neocortical development and extended the potential number of genes by 100's, many of which are involved in functions related to cell proliferation but others of which are potential candidates for involvement in the regulation of neocortical development.Frontiers in Neuroscience 08/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fate decisions in neural progenitor cells are orchestrated via multiple pathways, and the role of histone acetylation in these decisions has been ascribed to a general function promoting gene activation. Here, we show that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) cofactor transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (Trrap) specifically regulates activation of cell-cycle genes, thereby integrating discrete cell-intrinsic programs of cell-cycle progression and epigenetic regulation of gene transcription in order to control neurogenesis. Deletion of Trrap impairs recruitment of HATs and transcriptional machinery specifically to E2F cell-cycle target genes, disrupting their transcription with consequent cell-cycle lengthening specifically within cortical apical neural progenitors (APs). Consistently, Trrap conditional mutants exhibit microcephaly because of premature differentiation of APs into intermediate basal progenitors and neurons, and overexpressing cell-cycle regulators in vivo can rescue these premature differentiation defects. These results demonstrate an essential and highly specific role for Trrap-mediated histone regulation in controlling cell-cycle progression and neurogenesis.Cell stem cell 05/2014; 14(5):632-43. · 23.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aberrant expression and activation of the cell cycle protein E2F1 in neurons has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. As a transcription factor regulating G1 to S phase progression in proliferative cells, E2F1 is often upregulated and activated in models of neuronal death. However, despite its well studied functions in neuronal death, little is known regarding the role of E2F1 in the mature brain. In the present study, we used a combined approach to study the effect of E2F1 gene disruption on mouse behavior and brain biochemistry. We identified significant age-dependent olfactory and memory related deficits in E2f1 mutant mice. In addition, we found that E2F1 exhibits punctated staining and localizes closely to the synapse. Furthermore, we found a mirroring age-dependent loss of postsynaptic protein-95 in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb as well as a global loss of several other synaptic proteins. Coincidently, E2F1 expression is significantly elevated at the ages in which behavioral and synaptic perturbations were observed. Lastly, we show that deficits in adult neurogenesis persist late in aged E2f1 mutant mice which may partially contribute to the behavior phenotypes. Taken together, our data suggest that the disruption of E2F1 function leads to specific age-dependent behavioral deficits and synaptic perturbations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor