Proteasomal inhibition-induced inclusion formation and death in cortical neurons require transcription and ubiquitination.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests that proteasomal dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases. We have used pharmacological inhibitors of the proteasome to model proteasomal dysfunction in cultured rat cortical neurons. Proteasomal inhibition induced apoptotic death and formation of cytoplasmic ubiquitinated inclusions, which were present only in viable neurons. Actinomycin D, but not a caspase inhibitor, prevented inclusion formation, whereas both agents inhibited cell death. alpha-Synuclein and thioflavin S staining were found within the inclusions. alpha-Synuclein, however, did not appear to be ubiquitinated or aggregated. A dominant-negative mutant of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, cdc34, prevented inclusion formation and attenuated cell death. Our results suggest that in cortical neurons: (a) proteasomal dysfunction plays a role in formation of ubiquitin/alpha-synuclein-positive inclusions, (b) inclusion formation is an active cell process requiring transcription, and (c) ubiquitination of certain proteins is required for inclusion formation and may participate in neuronal death.
Article: Abberant alpha-synuclein confers toxicity to neurons in part through inhibition of chaperone-mediated autophagy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms through which aberrant alpha-synuclein (ASYN) leads to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) are uncertain. In isolated liver lysosomes, mutant ASYNs impair Chaperone Mediated Autophagy (CMA), a targeted lysosomal degradation pathway; however, whether this occurs in a cellular context, and whether it mediates ASYN toxicity, is unknown. We have investigated presently the effects of WT or mutant ASYN on the lysosomal pathways of CMA and macroautophagy in neuronal cells and assessed their impact on ASYN-mediated toxicity. Novel inducible SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines expressing human WT and A53T ASYN, as well as two mutant forms that lack the CMA-targeting motif were generated. Such forms were also expressed in primary cortical neurons, using adenoviral transduction. In each case, effects on long-lived protein degradation, LC3 II levels (as a macroautophagy index), and cell death and survival were assessed. In both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cycling cells, induction of A53T ASYN evoked a significant decrease in lysosomal degradation, largely due to CMA impairment. In neuronally differentiated SH-SH5Y cells, both WT and A53T ASYN induction resulted in gradual toxicity, which was partly dependent on CMA impairment and compensatory macroautophagy induction. In primary neurons both WT and A53T ASYN were toxic, but only in the case of A53T ASYN did CMA dysfunction and compensatory macroautophagy induction occur and participate in death. Expression of mutant A53T, and, in some cases, WT ASYN in neuronal cells leads to CMA dysfunction, and this in turn leads to compensatory induction of macroautophagy. Inhibition of these lysosomal effects mitigates ASYN toxicity. Therefore, CMA dysfunction mediates aberrant ASYN toxicity, and may be a target for therapeutic intervention in PD and related disorders. Furthermore, macroautophagy induction in the context of ASYN over-expression, in contrast to other settings, appears to be a detrimental response, leading to neuronal death.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5515. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD). LRRK2 contains an "enzymatic core" composed of GTPase and kinase domains that is flanked by leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and WD40 protein-protein interaction domains. While kinase activity and GTP-binding have both been implicated in LRRK2 neurotoxicity, the potential role of other LRRK2 domains has not been as extensively explored. We demonstrate that LRRK2 normally exists in a dimeric complex, and that removing the WD40 domain prevents complex formation and autophosphorylation. Moreover, loss of the WD40 domain completely blocks the neurotoxicity of multiple LRRK2 PD mutations. These findings suggest that LRRK2 dimerization and autophosphorylation may be required for the neurotoxicity of LRRK2 PD mutations and highlight a potential role for the WD40 domain in the mechanism of LRRK2-mediated cell death.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(12):e8463. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Role of the proteasome in excitotoxicity-induced cleavage of glutamic acid decarboxylase in cultured hippocampal neurons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutamic acid decarboxylase is responsible for synthesizing GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, and exists in two isoforms--GAD65 and GAD67. The enzyme is cleaved under excitotoxic conditions, but the mechanisms involved and the functional consequences are not fully elucidated. We found that excitotoxic stimulation of cultured hippocampal neurons with glutamate leads to a time-dependent cleavage of GAD65 and GAD67 in the N-terminal region of the proteins, and decrease the corresponding mRNAs. The cleavage of GAD67 was sensitive to the proteasome inhibitors MG132, YU102 and lactacystin, and was also abrogated by the E1 ubiquitin ligase inhibitor UBEI-41. In contrast, MG132 and UBEI-41 were the only inhibitors tested that showed an effect on GAD65 cleavage. Excitotoxic stimulation with glutamate also increased the amount of GAD captured in experiments where ubiquitinated proteins and their binding partners were isolated. However, no evidences were found for direct GADs ubiquitination in cultured hippocampal neurons, and recombinant GAD65 was not cleaved by purified 20S or 26S proteasome preparations. Since calpains, a group of calcium activated proteases, play a key role in GAD65/67 cleavage under excitotoxic conditions the results suggest that GADs are cleaved after ubiquitination and degradation of an unknown binding partner by the proteasome. The characteristic punctate distribution of GAD65 along neurites of differentiated cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced after excitotoxic injury, and the total GAD activity measured in extracts from the cerebellum or cerebral cortex at 24h postmortem (when there is a partial cleavage of GADs) was also decreased. The results show a role of the UPS in the cleavage of GAD65/67 and point out the deregulation of GADs under excitotoxic conditions, which is likely to affect GABAergic neurotransmission. This is the first time that the UPS has been implicated in the events triggered during excitotoxicity and the first molecular target of the UPS affected in this cell death process.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10139. · 4.09 Impact Factor