Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.
ABSTRACT Over the last quarter century, more than 532 genes have been put forward as regulatory targets of retinoic acid. In some cases this control is direct, driven by a liganded heterodimer of retinoid receptors bound to a DNA response element; in others, it is indirect, reflecting the actions of intermediate transcription factors, non-classical associations of receptors with other proteins, or even more distant mechanisms. Given the broad range of scientific questions continually under investigation, researchers do not always have occasion to classify target genes along these lines. However, our understanding of the genetic role of retinoids will be enhanced if such a distinction can be made for each regulated gene. We have therefore evaluated published data from 1,191 papers covering 532 genes and have classified these genes into four categories according to the degree to which an hypothesis of direct versus indirect control is supported overall. We found 27 genes that are unquestionably direct targets of the classical pathway in permissive cellular contexts (Category 3 genes), plus 105 genes that appear to be candidates, pending the results of specific additional experiments (Category 2). Data on another 267 targets are not evocative of direct or indirect regulation either way, although control by retinoic acid through some mechanism is clear (Category 1). Most of the remaining 133 targets seem to be regulated indirectly, usually through a transcriptional intermediary, in the contexts studied so far (Category 0).
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol's effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.Nutrients 05/2012; 4(5):356-71. · 0.68 Impact Factor
Dataset: The Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation on Biochemical Parameters in Multiple Sclerosis Patients[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Vitamin A has different functions in the body and after being converted to acid form; it can play many roles in immune system regulation. Therefore, this vitamin can be used as a supplement in the treatment of diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble compound and its long-term consumption in high doses can have some adverse effects. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the possible complications and find solutions to minimize the adverse effects. Patients and Methods: This study was a double blind randomized clinical trial. In the main study, vitamin A (as retinyl palmitate) was given to 35 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in order to regulate their immune system with a dose of 25000 IU/day for a period of six months. To investigate the possible biochemical complications, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), liver enzymes, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were tested. Results: Vitamin A did not have a significant difference in lipid profiles, FBS and liver enzymes between the two groups receiving vitamin A and the placebo, but CRP increased in patients who were taking vitamin A, 1.65±0.43 (mg/L) and 2.88±0.67, (Mean±SEM), before and after the intervention respectively (P=0.029), and statistical analysis showed significant differences with the group receiving placebo (P=0.011) and CRP level in vitamin A group was 1.3 mg/L more than those of the placebo group after intervention (P=0.011).
Article: Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.Journal of Translational Medicine 03/2012; 10:46. · 3.41 Impact Factor