Homocysteine, cysteine, and B vitamins as predictors of kidney disease progression.
ABSTRACT Pathological similarities between atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis suggest that risk factors for the two processes may be similar. Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels and low B vitamin levels are risk factors for atherosclerosis, but have not been evaluated sufficiently as risk factors for the progression of kidney disease.
Frozen samples from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study were assayed for serum tHcy, cysteine, pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), folate, and vitamin B12 levels in 804 participants. These factors were evaluated in both continuous and categorical analyses as risk factors for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline by using univariate and multivariable analyses.
At baseline, mean tHcy levels in study A (GFR, 25 to 55 mL/min/1.73 m2) and study B (GFR, 13 to 24 mL/min/1.73 m2) were 16.9 micromol/L (median, 15.6 micromol/L) and 23.0 micromol/L (median, 20.5 micromol/L), respectively. Mean follow-up was 2.2 years. Mean GFR declines were -4.35 and -3.65 mL/min/y in studies A and B, respectively. There was no significant association between change in GFR with baseline level of tHcy in univariate (-0.26 mL/min/y per 1-SD unit increase in tHcy level; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.67 to 0.15) or multivariable (-0.18 mL/min/y per 1-SD unit increase in tHcy level; 95% CI, -0.53 to 0.17) analysis in study A or univariate (0.07 mL/min/y per 1-SD unit increase in tHcy level; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.51) or multivariable (0.24 mL/min/y per 1-SD unit increase in tHcy level; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.64) analysis in study B. Similarly, higher cysteine levels and lower B vitamin levels were not associated with faster rates of GFR decline in multivariable analysis in either study.
Higher tHcy or cysteine levels and lower folate, PLP, and vitamin B12 levels are not independent risk factors for progression of nondiabetic kidney disease.
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ABSTRACT: Despite substantial evidence indicating the association of hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the pathogenic role of increased plasma homocysteine (Hcys) levels in the progression of ESRD remains unclear. This review will briefly summarize recent findings regarding the role of hHcys in the development of glomerulosclerosis, the association of hHcys with reduced renal transsulfuration and Hcys-induced changes of redox signaling in the development of glomerulosclerosis in rat kidneys. Based on these results, it is concluded that hHcys is implicated in glomerular sclerosis in hypertension, elevated plasma Hcys in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rats is due to downregulation of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) expression and consequent abnormality of transsulfuration in the kidney compared with normotensive rats. Hcys-induced superoxide (O(2)(*-)) production by activation of NADPH oxidase as a triggering mechanism contributes to the effects of Hcys on the homeostasis of extracellular matrix and consequent sclerosis in the glomeruli, and NADPH oxidase activation by Hcys is associated with enhanced Rac GTPase activity.Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2007; 45(12):1688-93. · 2.15 Impact Factor