Pathogenesis of infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Lancet Infect Dis 2:675-85

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Münster Hospital and Clinics, Münster, Germany.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 19.45). 12/2002; 2(11):677-85. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00438-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As a group, the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the most frequently isolated bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory and are becoming increasingly important, especially as causes of hospital-acquired infections. These bacteria are normal inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes and, therefore, one of the major challenges of daily diagnostic work is to distinguish clinically significant CoNS from contaminant strains. This overview addresses current knowledge of the pathogenesis of infections due to CoNS and particularly focuses on virulence factors of the species Staphylococcus epidermidis. S epidermidis has been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with predisposing factors such as indwelling or implanted foreign polymer bodies. Most important in the pathogenesis of foreign-body-associated infections is the ability of these bacteria to colonise the polymer surface by the formation of a thick, multilayered biofilm. Biofilm formation takes place in two phases. The first phase involves the attachment of the bacteria to polymer surfaces that may be either unmodified or coated with host extracellular matrix proteins. In the second phase, the bacteria proliferate and accumulate into multilayered cell clusters that are embedded in an extracellular material. The bacterial factors involved in both phases of biofilm formation are discussed in this review. In addition, the most important aspects of the pathogenic potential of S saprophyticus, S lugdunensis, and S schleiferi are described, although, compared with S epidermidis, much less is known in these species concerning their virulence factors.

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    • "Joint prostheses and fixation implants usually fail due to staphylococci [21] and gram-negative bacilli infections [20]. Staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), such as S. epidermidis species, are the most common causative agents, in case of medical device-associated infections [22]. Another example, commonly causing infections due to its ability for fast colonization and slime formation, is the gram-negative bacilli Pseudomonas aeruginosa. "
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    ABSTRACT: Parylene C surface was modified by the use of oxygen plasma treatment and characterized by microscopic and surface-sensitive techniques (E-SEM, AFM, XPS, LDI-TOF-MS, contact angle). The influence of the treatment on surface properties was investigated by calculations of surface free energy (Owens-Wendt method). Moreover, early adhesion (Culture Plate Method, Optical Microscopy Test) and biofilm formation ability (Cristal Violet Assay) on the parylene C surface was investigated. The bacteria strains which are common causative agents of medical device-associated infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - reference strains and clinical isolates) were used. It was concluded that chemical (oxygen insertion) and physical (nanotopography generation) changes, have a significant impact on the biocompatibility in terms of increased hydrophilicity (θw of unmodified sample=88°±2°, θw of 60min modified sample=17.6°±0.8°) and surface free energy (SFE of unmodified sample=42.4mJ/m(2), and for 60min modified sample=70.1mJ/m(2)). At the same time, no statistical effect on biofilm production and bacteria attachment to the modified surface of any of the tested strains was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 07/2015; 52:273-281. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.060 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections associated with the insertion of medical devices can arise due to their ability to form biofilms on surfaces [1]. A biofilm is a multicellular , three-dimensional bacterial community anchored to a surface; bacteria within a biofilm are surrounded by an exopolymeric matrix, reducing bacterial exposure to antibiotics and the host immune system [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis cause dangerous and difficult to treat medical device-related infections through their ability to form biofilms. Extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) facilitates biofilm formation and is a vaccination target, yet details of its biosynthesis by the icaADBC gene products is limited. IcaC is the proposed transporter for PNAG export, however a comparison of the Ica proteins to homologous exo-polysaccharide synthases suggests that the common IcaAD protein components both synthesise and transport the PNAG. The limited distribution of icaC to the Staphylococcaceae and its membership of a family of membrane-bound acyltransferases, leads us to suggest that IcaC is responsible for the known O-succinylation of PNAG that occurs in staphylococci, identifying a potentially new therapeutic target specific for these bacteria.
    FEBS letters 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.04.002 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Aureobasidium pullulans is common in tropical and subtropical regions; there are reports of keratomycosis, meningitis, splenic abscess, maxillary abscess, pulmonary mycosis, septicemia, opportunistic infections, cutaneous mycosis, and pheohyphomycosis [19] [20]. For the genus Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has been found as a major pathogen in hospitals, and its occurrence is increasing with the use of prostheses, being more evident in immunocompromised patients [21] [22]. Some Micrococcus sp. are usually found in the skin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of bacteria and fungi on dental plaster casts stored long-term. Methods Forty-four pairs of dental casts stored since 1980–1981 were used. The material for microbiological analysis was collected with a swab and cultivated in brain-heart infusion cultures and Sabouraud dextrose broth for subsequent plating and colony identification. Results Bacterial growth such as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., and nonfermenting gram-negative bacillus were present in 25% of the samples, whereas fungal growth such as Cladophialophora sp., Trichosporon beigelii, Aspergillus flavus, and Aureobasidium pullulans were found in 5.7%. Conclusions There was growth of opportunistic bacteria and fungi, posing no risk to healthy people.
    12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ejwf.2013.07.003
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