Genetics of childhood disorders: XLIV. autism, part 3: psychopharmacology of autism.
Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.35). 12/2002; 41(11):1380-3. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-200211000-00021
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ABSTRACT: Youths with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) often have symptoms that fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. These children may be given a subsequent trial of another SSRI. This study reports on the outcome of PDD youths who received a second SSRI trial after an initial treatment failure. Clinic charts were reviewed for 22 outpatient youths with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a PDD who were treated with an SSRI after an initial failure with a previous SSRI. Response for the second SSRI trial was determined using the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Treatment indications, symptom severity, demographic data, and side effects were recorded. For the second SSRI trial, 31.8% of the subjects were rated as much improved on the CGI-I scale and determined to be responders, with 68.2% of the subjects demonstrating activation side effects. 90% of subjects demonstrated activation side effects when data from both SSRI trials were combined. There were no statistically significant associations between outcome of the second SSRI trial and clinical/demographic variables. A second trial of an SSRI after an initial SSRI treatment failure was often unsuccessful in children and adolescents with PDDs. Activation side effects were common. Because alternative treatments in this population are limited, a second trial of an SSRI may still be considered. The study was limited by its retrospective design and by its small sample size.Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 05/2009; 19(2):111-7. DOI:10.1089/cap.2008.037 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Learning Objectives: After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the neuropeptide oxytocin. Further research is needed to establish evidence-based interventions in ASD populations.Harvard Review of Psychiatry 01/2014; 22(2):76-92. DOI:10.1097/HRP.0000000000000030 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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