Decreased bone density, elevated serum osteoprotegerin, and beta-cross-laps in Wilson disease.
ABSTRACT Osteopathia has been reported in Wilson disease (WD), but bone density has not been measured; therefore, we performed bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) assessments, as well as measured the serum levels of osteocalcin (OCN), beta-cross-laps (beta-CTx's), and the recently discovered osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand RANKL to investigate the underlying mechanism of osseous disorders. Serum OCN, beta-CTx, OPG, and RANKL levels were measured by ELISA in 21 WD patients and in 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. BMD, BMC, and QUS parameters were also determined. Osteoporosis was present in 9/21 (43%) WD patients. Abnormal QUS parameters were found in 7 (33%) of the patients. Although serum OCN levels were similar in patients and controls (29.93 +/- 24.65 mg/ml vs. 29.84 +/- 6.89 mg/ml), beta-CTx and OPG levels were significantly increased in WD compared with the healthy controls (625.4 +/- 312.3 pg/ml vs. 423.6 +/- 144.3 pg/ml and p = 0.022 and 7.2 +/- 3.4 pM vs. 3.5 +/- 1.0 pM and p < 0.001, respectively). No difference was observed in the RANKL level. There was a positive correlation between OCN and beta-CTx (r = 0.55; p = 0.01). We proved high occurrence of osteoporosis in WD. Negative bone remodeling balance is a consequence of increased bone resorption, which is indicated by elevated beta-CTx. The novel finding of elevated serum OPG may reflect a compensatory reaction to enhanced osteoclast activity, despite the normal OCN level.
SourceAvailable from: Craig Ranson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Context: The RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway is important in the regulation of bone turnover, with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within this pathway associated with bone phenotypic adaptations. Objective: To determine whether four SNPs associated with genes in the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway were associated with stress fracture injury in elite athletes. Design, participants, and methods: Radiologically confirmed stress fracture history was reported in 518 elite athletes,forming the Stress Fracture Elite Athlete (SFEA) cohort. Data were analysed for the whole group and were sub-stratified into male and cases of multiple stress fracture groups. Genotypes were determined using proprietary fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR assays. Results: SNPs rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) were associated with stress fracture injury (P b 0.05). 8.1% of the stress fracture group and 2.8% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygote for the rare allele of rs1021188. Allele frequency, heterozygotes and homozygotes for the rare allele of rs3018362 were associated with stress fracture period prevalence (P b 0.05). Analysis of the male only group showed 8.2% of rs1021188 rare allele homozygotes had suffered a stress fracturewhilst 2.5% of the non-stress fracture group were homozygous. In cases of multiple stress fractures, homozygotes for the rare allele of rs1021188 and individuals possessing atleast one copy of the rare allele of rs4355801 (OPG) were shown to be associated with stress fracture injury (P b 0.05). Conclusions: The data support an association between SNPs in the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling pathway and the development of stress fracture injury. The association of rs3018362 (RANK) and rs1021188 (RANKL) with stress fracture injury susceptibility supports their role in the maintenance of bone health and offers potential targets for therapeutic interventions.Bone 10/2014; 71:131-136. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.10.004 · 4.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Wilson's disease is a rare genetic disorder that has abnormal copper metabolism. Although the disease's main problems are found in liver and brain, some studies revealed manifestation of various musculoskeletal problems in the patients. In this report, we encountered a young patient who had fracture in the forearm bone. Initially, exception to a previous history of fracture from a motorcycle accident, the patient did not have any medical or drug use history, and laboratory work-ups were insignificant. However, with suspicion on his bone's integrity, bone densitometry was recommended and revealed osteopenic change. To disclose a cause for the change, questions were made to recall any particular history or event, and his complaint of recent vision loss led to ophthalmologic consultation where under slit-lamp test found Kayser-Fleischer ring. Further laboratory work-up found low levels of serum copper and ceruloplasmin and high copper level in 24-hr urine sample that led to the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. Although Wilson's disease has been frequently noticed with considerable musculoskeletal manifestation, it rarity makes the diagnosis illusive to a physician. Hence, despite of its rarity, it is imperative to remember the disease's bony manifestation, and it should be suspected in young patients with demineralized bone when the reason for brittle bone cannot be answered with other better known conditions.02/2015; 22(1):33-7. DOI:10.11005/jbm.2015.22.1.33
Article: Hepatic osteodystrophy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabolic disturbances of bone are frequent in patients with chronic liver disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis among patients with advanced chronic liver disease is reported between 12% and 55%; it is higher in primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients with advanced liver disease should be screened for osteoporosis with a densitometry, especially if the etiology is cholestatic and in the presence of other risk factors. Clinical relevance of hepatic osteodystrophy increases after liver transplantation. After liver transplant, a rapid loss of bone mineral density can be detected in the first 6 months, followed by stabilization and slight improvement of the values. At the time of transplantation, bone density values are very important prognostic factors. Therapy of hepatic osteodystrophy is based primarily on the control of risk factors: cessation of tobacco and alcohol assumption, reduction of caffeine ingestion, exercise, supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, limitation of drugs such as loop diuretics, corticosteroids, cholestyramine. Bisphosphonates have been proposed for the therapy of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease, particularly after liver transplantation. The possible side effects of oral administration of bisphosphonates, such as the occurrence of esophageal ulcerations, are of particular concern in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, due to the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ruptured esophageal varices, although this risk is probably overestimated.