Hyperparathyroidism in hereditary syndromes: Special expressions and special managements
ABSTRACT Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in its hereditary variants assumes special forms, has special associations, and requires special managements. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH or FBHH) and neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) reflect heterozygous or homozygous mutations, respectively, in the calcium-sensing receptor. FHH and NSHPT represent the mildest and severest variants of HPT. Both cause hypercalcemia from birth and atypical HPT that always and uniquely persists after subtotal parathyroidectomy. Their HPT is likely polyclonal and nonneoplastic. In contrast, mono- or oligo-clonal parathyroid neoplasia underlays most other HPT variants: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT). Familial-isolated HPT combines several diagnoses, including occult forms of the above syndromes. Each neoplastic variant has tumors in multiple parathyroids and a delayed, but still early age of onset for HPT (average age, 25-35 years). Each justifies special and similar approaches to parathyroidectomy: typically, identification of four glands, subtotal parathyroidectomy, rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays, and parathyroid cryopreservation. Outcomes of parathyroidectomy remain suboptimal in each. Each syndrome of parathyroid neoplasia associates with characteristic cancer(s): enteropancreatic neuroendocrine or foregut carcinoid tissues (MEN1), thyroidal C cells (MEN2A), or parathyroid (HPT-JT). HPT has promoted gene discovery more through its rare hereditary variants than through common adenoma; the main genes causing four of six hereditary variants are known. The RET mutation test became essential in management of MEN2A. The MEN1 test is less urgent, because it rarely guides a major patient benefit. The CASR test, perhaps least urgent, has largely been unavailable. Further progress in molecular genetics will enhance understandings, diagnosis, and therapy of HPT.
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- "Online version via http://www.endocrinology-journals.org increased our knowledge about parathyroid tumorigenesis (Chandrasekharappa et al. 1997, Carpten et al. 2002, Marx et al. 2002). MEN1 and HRPT2 function as tumor suppressor genes, consistent with the Knudson 'two hit' hypothesis. "
ABSTRACT: Early onset of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and multiglandular involvement suggest a familial form in which germline mutation of a PHPT-related gene(s) and a somatic event at the same locus can be often demonstrated. We investigated the involvement of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and HRPT2 genes in a 39-year-old man with recurrent PHPT. PHPT was firstly diagnosed at the age of 21 and the patient had two recurrences separated by extended periods of normocalcemia. This unusual history prompted us to investigate other family members and study the MEN1 and HRPT2 genes. An HRPT2 germline missense mutation in exon 3 (R91P) was found in the index case, which was associated with different HRPT2 somatic alterations in each of the three examined parathyroid tumors. These findings are consistent with Knudson's 'two hit' concept of biallelic inactivation of classical tumor suppressor genes. Screening of 15 asymptomatic relatives was negative for the R91P germline mutation. All the three abnormal parathyroid specimens showed cystic features at histology and were negative for parafibromin immunostaining. In one specimen, diffuse parafibromin staining was evident in a rim of normal parathyroid tissue surrounding the adenomatous lesion. Our study shows that different somatic genetic events at the HRPT2 locus are responsible for the asynchronous occurrence of multiple adenomas in a patient carrying an HRPT2 germline mutation. The finding of diffuse parafibromin staining in a rim of normal parathyroid tissue, but not in the contiguous adenomatous lesion, reinforces the concept that loss of parafibromin expression is responsible for the development of parathyroid tumors in this setting.Endocrine Related Cancer 07/2007; 14(2):493-9. DOI:10.1677/ERC-06-0092 · 4.91 Impact Factor