Expression of inorganic phosphate/vesicular glutamate transporters (BNPI/VGLUT1 and DNPI/VGLUT2) in the cerebellum and precerebellar nuclei of the rat.
ABSTRACT Expression of inorganic phosphate/vesicular glutamate transporters (BNPI/VGLUT1 and DNPI/VGLUT2) was studied in the cerebellum and precerebellar nuclei of rats using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. DNPI/VGLUT2-stained mossy fibers were principally seen in the vermis (lobules I and VIII-X) and flocculus, whereas BNPI/VGLUT1-stained mossy fibers were localized throughout the cortex. Some vermal and floccular mossy fibers were stained for both transporters. High levels of DNPI/VGLUT2 mRNA hybridization signals were demonstrated in many neurons throughout the vestibular nuclear complex as well as the lateral reticular, external cuneate, inferior olivary and deep cerebellar nuclei. Significant BNPI/VGLUT1 mRNA signals were demonstrated in the lateral reticular nucleus and vestibular nuclear complex but not in the inferior olivary nucleus, indicating that climbing fibers have DNPI/VGLUT2 only. These results show that DNPI/VGLUT2 is expressed preferentially to vestibulo-, reticulo- and cuneocerebellar neurons, some of which also possess BNPI/VGLUT1, suggesting some differential and co-operative functions between DNPI/VGLUT2 and BNPI/VGLUT1 in the cerebellum.
Article: Vesicular glutamate transporter immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral endings of muscle-spindle afferents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs: VGLUT1, VGLUT2 and VGLUT3) in muscle spindle afferents was examined in rats. VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was detected in the sensory endings on the equatorial and juxta-equatarial regions of intrafusal fibers as well as in many axon terminals within lamina IX of the spinal cord. VGLUT1 might be expressed not only in the central axon terminals but also in the peripheral sensory endings of muscle-spindle afferents.Brain Research 07/2004; 1011(2):247-51. · 2.73 Impact Factor
Article: VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the rat cerebellar cortex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of key SNARE proteins in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the adult rat cerebellar cortex using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques. Analysis was made of co-localizations of vGluT-1 and vGluT-2, vesicular transporters of glutamate and markers of glutamatergic synapses, or GAD, the GABA synthetic enzyme and marker of GABAergic synapses, with VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1. The examined SNARE proteins were found to be diffusely expressed in glutamatergic synapses, whereas they were rarely observed in GABAergic synapses. However, among glutamatergic synapses, subpopulations which did not contain VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 were detected. They included virtually all the synapses established by terminals of climbing fibres (immunoreactive for vGluT-2) and some synapses established by terminals of parallel and mossy fibres (immunoreactive for vGluT-1, and for vGluT-1 and 2, respectively). The only GABA synapses expressing the SNARE proteins studied were the synapses established by axon terminals of basket neurons. The present study supplies a detailed morphological description of VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 in the different types of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the rat cerebellar cortex. The examined SNARE proteins characterize most of glutamatergic synapses and only one type of GABAergic synapses. In the subpopulations of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses lacking the SNARE protein isoforms examined, alternative mechanisms for regulating trafficking of synaptic vesicles may be hypothesized, possibly mediated by different isoforms or homologous proteins.BMC Neuroscience 11/2011; 12:118. · 3.04 Impact Factor