Novel ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 mutations in autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis with new evidence for hearing loss.

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, UK.
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.7). 12/2002; 39(11):796-803. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.39.11.796
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (rdRTA) is characterised by severe hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in childhood, hypokalaemia, decreased urinary calcium solubility, and impaired bone physiology and growth. Two types of rdRTA have been differentiated by the presence or absence of sensorineural hearing loss, but appear otherwise clinically similar. Recently, we identified mutations in genes encoding two different subunits of the renal alpha-intercalated cell's apical H(+)-ATPase that cause rdRTA. Defects in the B1 subunit gene ATP6V1B1, and the a4 subunit gene ATP6V0A4, cause rdRTA with deafness and with preserved hearing, respectively. We have investigated 26 new rdRTA kindreds, of which 23 are consanguineous. Linkage analysis of seven novel SNPs and five polymorphic markers in, and tightly linked to, ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 suggested that four families do not link to either locus, providing strong evidence for additional genetic heterogeneity. In ATP6V1B1, one novel and five previously reported mutations were found in 10 kindreds. In 12 ATP6V0A4 kindreds, seven of 10 mutations were novel. A further nine novel ATP6V0A4 mutations were found in "sporadic" cases. The previously reported association between ATP6V1B1 defects and severe hearing loss in childhood was maintained. However, several patients with ATP6V0A4 mutations have developed hearing loss, usually in young adulthood. We show here that ATP6V0A4 is expressed within the human inner ear. These findings provide further evidence for genetic heterogeneity in rdRTA, extend the spectrum of disease causing mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4, and show ATP6V0A4 expression within the cochlea for the first time.

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    ABSTRACT: Congenital distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) from mutations of the B1 subunit of the V-ATPase is considered an autosomal recessive disease. We analyzed a dRTA kindred with a truncation-mutation of B1 (p.Phe468fsX487) previously shown to have failure of assembly into the V1 domain of the V-ATPase. All heterozygous carriers in this kindred have normal plasma bicarbonate concentrations, thus evaded the diagnosis of RTA. However, inappropriately high urine pH, hypocitraturia, and hypercalciuria are present either individually or in combination in the heterozygotes at baseline. Two of the heterozygotes studied also have inappropriate urinary acidification with acute ammonium chloride loading and impaired urine-blood pCO2 gradient during bicarbonaturia indicating presence of H+ gradient and flux defects. In normal human renal papillae, wild type B1 is located primarily on the plasma membrane but papilla from one of the heterozygote who had kidney stones had renal tissue secured from surgery showed B1 in both plasma membrane as well as a diffuse intracellular staining. Titrating increasing amounts of the mutant B1 subunit did not exhibit negative dominance over the expression, cellular distribution, or H+-pump activity of the wild type B1 in mammalian HEK293 cells and in V-ATPase-deficient S. cerevisiae. This is the first demonstration of renal acidification defects and nephrolithiasis in heterozygous carriers of mutant B1 subunit; which cannot be attributable to negative dominance. We propose that heterozygosity may lead to mild real acidification defects due to haploinsufficiency. B1 heterozygosity should be considered in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis and urinary abnormalities such as alkalinuria or hypocitraturia.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 08/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type I (distal) renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disorder associated with the failure to excrete hydrogen ions from the distal renal tubule. It is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, an abnormal increase in urine pH, reduced urinary excretion of ammonium and bicarbonate ions, and mild deterioration in renal function. Hypercalciuria is common in distal RTA because of bone resorption, which increases as a buffer against metabolic acidosis. This can result in intractable rickets. We describe a case of distal RTA with nephrocalcinosis during follow-up of rickets in a patient who presented with clinical manifestations of short stature, failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, dehydration, and irritability.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A young female patient born to consanguineous parents was admitted to our clinic at the age of 3 years with a 5-month history of weight loss and recurrent urinary tract infections. Based on clinical findings (delayed growth and O-bein deformity) and laboratory tests (hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, partially compensated metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine and nephrocalsinosis), a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was made. Then, the audiogram revealed a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). On follow-up, bilateral SNHL progressively worsened requiring the need for hearing aid. The ATP6V0A4 gene mutation analysis showed homozygote Val2Ala mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a Turkish girl with dRTA who suffered from early-onset SNHL caused by Val2Ala mutation in the ATP6V0A4 gene.
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May 30, 2014