CD45: a critical regulator of signaling thresholds in immune cells.
ABSTRACT Regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical control point for integration of environmental signals into cellular responses. This regulation is mediated by the reciprocal actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. CD45, the first and prototypic receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase, is expressed on all nucleated hematopoietic cells and plays a central role in this process. Studies of CD45 mutant cell lines, CD45-deficient mice, and CD45-deficient humans initially demonstrated the essential role of CD45 in antigen receptor signal transduction and lymphocyte development. It is now known that CD45 also modulates signals emanating from integrin and cytokine receptors. Recent work has focused on regulation of CD45 expression and alternative splicing, isoform-specific differences in signal transduction, and regulation of phosphatase activity. From these studies, a model is emerging in which CD45 affects cellular responses by controlling the relative threshold of sensitivity to external stimuli. Perturbation of this function may contribute to autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Moreover, recent advances suggest that modulation of CD45 function can have therapeutic benefit in many disease states.
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ABSTRACT: FALC cells are natural helper cells producing Th2-type cytokines, which express c-kit, Sca-1, IL7R and CD45 in mouse and human. These cells are involved in allergic responses and contribute to the inflammatory reactions of adipose tissue; however, a lack of information prevails about the presence of these cells in other species. The aim of the study was to identify and characterise FALC cells in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques as well as to explore their relationships with their microenvironment. Histological description of the FALC was performed using H&E and polyclonal antibodies were used against cell-surface markers such as c-kit, Sca-1 and CD45. Furthermore, gene expression of c-kit, Sca-1 and IL7R was assessed. C. carpio FALC cells express the same surface markers reported in FALC of the mouse at both the pre- and post-transcriptional level. By exposure to the soluble fraction of helminths, FALC cells produce abundant Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13) but do not synthesise IL-1α. Additionally, FALC cells probably participate in vascular remodelling of the intestine vessels, inducing tumours because a malignant haemangiosarcoma in the peritoneal cavity was found. In this tumour, abundant FALC with their characteristic cell-surface markers were detected. The findings of this study suggest the involvement of some proto-oncogenes such as c-kit and Sca-1, and the deregulation of Src kinases modulated by CD45 present in Cyprinus carpio FALC with the ontogeny of peritoneal haemangiosarcoma in this fish species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 03/2015; 44(2). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.03.019 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is expressed on the surface of almost all cells of hematopoietic origin. CD45 functions are central to the development of T cells and determine the threshold at which T and B lymphocytes can become activated. Given this pivotal role of CD45 in the immune system, it is probably not surprising that viruses interfere with the activity of CD45 in lymphocytes to dampen the immune response and that they also utilize this molecule to accomplish their replication cycle. Here we report what is known about the interaction of viral proteins with CD45. Moreover, we debate putative interactions of viruses with CD45 in myeloid cells and the resulting consequences—subjects that remain to be investigated. Finally, we summarize the evidence that pathogens were the driving force for the evolution of CD45.Viruses 03/2015; 7(3):1540-1557. DOI:10.3390/v7031540 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posttranscriptional regulation is a major mechanism to rewire transcriptomes during differentiation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein LL (hnRNPLL) is specifically induced in terminally differentiated lymphocytes, including effector T cells and plasma cells. To study the molecular functions of hnRNPLL at a genome-wide level, we identified hnRNPLL RNA targets and binding sites in plasma cells through integrated Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and RNA sequencing. hnRNPLL preferentially recognizes CA dinucleotide-containing sequences in introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), promotes exon inclusion or exclusion in a context-dependent manner, and stabilizes mRNA when associated with 3' UTRs. During differentiation of primary B cells to plasma cells, hnRNPLL mediates a genome-wide switch of RNA processing, resulting in loss of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) expression and increased Ig production-both hallmarks of plasma-cell maturation. Our data identify previously unknown functions of hnRNPLL in B-cell to plasma-cell differentiation and demonstrate that the RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL has a critical role in tuning transcriptomes of terminally differentiating B lymphocytes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2015; 112(15). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1422490112 · 9.81 Impact Factor