CD45: a critical regulator of signaling thresholds in immune cells.
ABSTRACT Regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical control point for integration of environmental signals into cellular responses. This regulation is mediated by the reciprocal actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. CD45, the first and prototypic receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase, is expressed on all nucleated hematopoietic cells and plays a central role in this process. Studies of CD45 mutant cell lines, CD45-deficient mice, and CD45-deficient humans initially demonstrated the essential role of CD45 in antigen receptor signal transduction and lymphocyte development. It is now known that CD45 also modulates signals emanating from integrin and cytokine receptors. Recent work has focused on regulation of CD45 expression and alternative splicing, isoform-specific differences in signal transduction, and regulation of phosphatase activity. From these studies, a model is emerging in which CD45 affects cellular responses by controlling the relative threshold of sensitivity to external stimuli. Perturbation of this function may contribute to autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Moreover, recent advances suggest that modulation of CD45 function can have therapeutic benefit in many disease states.
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ABSTRACT: CD45 is one of the most abundant molecules expressed on the white blood cell surface in various mammals. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of CD45 isoforms in normal canine white blood cells. It has been shown that all canine nucleated blood cells express CD45. We characterized 2 major isoforms of canine CD45 derived from alternative splicing: a higher molecular weight isoform, CD45RA, and a lower molecular weight isoform, CD45RO. The nucleotide sequences of the 2 isoforms were identical, except for the region corresponding to a part in the extracellular domain. Flow cytometry analysis using an antibody that recognizes CD45RA, but not CD45RO, revealed that granulocytes did not express CD45RA, and monocytes express low levels of CD45RA. We further analyzed the expression levels of CD45RA in each lymphocyte subpopulation and found that the expression of CD45RA on CD21+ B cells was uniform. On the other hand, expression of CD45RA on CD3+ T cells was variable. Upon stimulation of lymphocytes with Con A, the CD45RA+ fraction increased, indicating that not only the phenotypes but also the activation status influences the isoform expression pattern of CD45. Our finding provides a basic knowledge of the expression of canine CD45, which could be a tool to study lymphocytes with various phenotypes, developmental stages, and activation status.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 07/2014; 160(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.03.011 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Humans are continuously exposed to a high number of diverse pathogens that induce different types of immune responses. Primary pathogen-specific immune responses generate multiple subsets of memory T cells, which provide protection against secondary infections. In recent years, several novel T cell subsets have been identified and have significantly broadened our knowledge about T cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. At the same time the rapidly growing number of incompletely characterized T cell subsets has also generated some controversies. We therefore review here the current knowledge on features and functions of human α/β T cell subsets, focusing on CD4(+) T cells classified according to cytokine production and tissue localization. The principal helper and regulatory T cell subsets can be identified by a limited number of relevant surface markers, which are an integral part of the T cell differentiation programs because they are directly induced by the relevant lineage-defining transcription factors. In vivo occurring human T cell subsets can thus be purified directly ex vivo from relevant tissues for molecular and functional studies, and represent not only an ideal model to study T cell differentiation, but they also offer important clinical opportunities.Seminars in Immunology 10/2013; 25(4). DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.10.012 · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many cellular signaling events are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are emerging as drug targets, but poor cell permeability of inhibitors has limited the development of drugs targeting these enzymes [Tautz L, et al. (2006) Expert Opin Ther Targets 10:157-177]. Here we developed a method to monitor tyrosine phosphatase activity at the single-cell level and applied it to the identification of cell-permeable inhibitors. The method takes advantage of the fluorogenic properties of phosphorylated coumaryl amino propionic acid (pCAP), an analog of phosphotyrosine, which can be incorporated into peptides. Once delivered into cells, pCAP peptides were dephosphorylated by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and the resulting cell fluorescence could be monitored by flow cytometry and high-content imaging. The robustness and sensitivity of the assay was validated using peptides preferentially dephosphorylated by CD45 and T-cell tyrosine phosphatase and available inhibitors of these two enzymes. The assay was applied to high-throughput screening for inhibitors of CD45, an important target for autoimmunity and infectious diseases [Hermiston ML, et al. (2003) Annu Rev Immunol 21:107-137]. We identified four CD45 inhibitors that showed activity in T cells and macrophages. These results indicate that our assay can be applied to primary screening for inhibitors of CD45 and of other protein tyrosine phosphatases to increase the yield of biologically active inhibitors.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(35):13972-7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1205028109 · 9.81 Impact Factor