The myodystrophy (myd) mutation arose spontaneously and has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Homozygous mutant mice display a severe, progressive muscular dystrophy. Using a positional cloning approach, we identified the causative mutation in myd as a deletion within the Large gene, which encodes a putative glycosyltransferase with two predicted catalytic domains. By immunoblotting, the alpha-subunit of dystroglycan, a key muscle membrane protein, is abnormal in myd mice. This aberrant protein might represent altered glycosylation of the protein and contribute to the muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our results are discussed in the light of recent reports describing mutations in other glycosyltransferase genes in several forms of human muscular dystrophy.
"In fact, the mucin domain of α-DG is decorated with LARGE-dependent phosphorylated O-mannosyl glycans that are responsible for α-DG high affinity binding activity [37,38]. The Largemyd mice harbor a spontaneous mutation the Large gene, which results in hypoglycosylated α-DG and loss of ligand binding [4,39]. These mice develop many of the brain malformations associated with severe forms of dystroglycanopathy, including disruption of the basement membrane and aberrant neuronal migration in the cerebrum and cerebellum [4,40,41]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cobblestone lissencephaly is a severe neuronal migration disorder associated with congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) such as Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama-type CMD. In these severe forms of dystroglycanopathy, the muscular dystrophy and other tissue pathology is caused by mutations in genes involved in O-linked glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. While cerebellar dysplasia is a common feature of dystroglycanopathy, its pathogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated.
Here we evaluate the role of dystroglycan during cerebellar development. Brain-selective deletion of dystroglycan does not affect overall cerebellar growth, yet causes malformations associated with glia limitans disruptions and granule cell heterotopia that recapitulate phenotypes found in dystroglycanopathy patients. Cerebellar pathology in these mice is not evident until birth even though dystroglycan is lost during the second week of embryogenesis. The severity and spatial distribution of glia limitans disruption, Bergmann glia disorganization, and heterotopia exacerbate during postnatal development. Astrogliosis becomes prominent at these same sites by the time cerebellar development is complete. Interestingly, there is spatial heterogeneity in the glia limitans and granule neuron migration defects that spares the tips of lobules IV-V and VI.
The full spectrum of developmental pathology is caused by loss of dystroglycan from Bergmann glia, as neither granule cell- nor Purkinje cell-specific deletion of dystroglycan results in similar pathology. These data illustrate the importance of dystroglycan function in radial/Bergmann glia, not neurons, for normal cerebellar histogenesis. The spatial heterogeneity of pathology suggests that the dependence on dystroglycan is not uniform.
"In this study, we use the Largemyd mouse, a dystroglycanopathy model with a pathology resembling MEB disease, to investigate satellite cell function. Largemyd−/− but not Largemyd+/− mice have severe muscle pathology, together with eye and structural brain defects [41–44]. We report an elevation in satellite cell number on freshly isolated single muscle fibers of Largemyd mice, together with impaired proliferation, compared with those of wild-type. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component α-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina components, a loss in structural stability, and repeated cycles of muscle fiber degeneration and regeneration. The satellite cells are the key stem cells responsible for muscle repair and reside between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. In this study, we aimed to determine whether pathological changes associated with the dystroglycanopathies affect satellite cell function. In the Large(myd) mouse dystroglycanopathy model, satellite cells are present in significantly greater numbers but display reduced proliferation on their native muscle fibers in vitro, compared with wild type. However, when removed from their fiber, proliferation in culture is restored to that of wild type. Immunohistochemical analysis of Large(myd) muscle reveals alterations to the basal lamina and interstitium, including marked disorganization of laminin, upregulation of fibronectin and collagens. Proliferation and differentiation of wild-type satellite cells is impaired when cultured on substrates such as collagen and fibronectin, compared with laminins. When engrafted into irradiated tibialis anterior muscles of mdx-nude mice, wild-type satellite cells expanded on laminin contribute significantly more to muscle regeneration than those expanded on fibronectin. These results suggest that defects in α-dystroglycan glycosylation are associated with an alteration in the satellite cell niche, and that regenerative potential in the dystroglycanopathies may be perturbed. STEM Cells2012;30:2330-2341.
"The closely related homologues of LARGE are found in the human genome, (glycosyltransferase-like 1B; GYLTL1B), mouse genome (Glylt1b; also called LARGE-Like or LargeL) and in some other vertebrate species (Grewal & Hewitt, 2002). The homologue gene is positioned on the chromosome 11p11.2 of the human genome and it encodes 721 amino acid protein which has 67% identity with LARGE, suggests that the two genes may have risen by gene duplication. "
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