Voltage-sensitive dye mapping in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts.
ABSTRACT An imaging system suitable for recordings from Langendorff-perfused rat hearts using the voltage-sensitive dye 4-[beta-[2-(di-n-butylamino)-6-naphthyl]vinyl]pyridinium (di-4-ANEPPS) has been developed. Conduction velocity was measured under hyper- and hypokalemic conditions, as well as at physiological and reduced temperature. Elevation of extracellular [K(+)] to 9 mM from 5.9 mM caused a slowing of conduction velocity from 0.66 +/- 0.08 to 0.43 +/- 0.07 mm/ms (35%), and reduction of the temperature to 32 degrees C from 37 degrees C caused a slowing from 0.64 +/- 0.07 to 0.46 +/- 0.05 mm/ms (28%). Ventricular activation patterns in sinus rhythm showed areas of early activation (breakthrough) in both the right and left ventricle, with breakthrough at a site near the apex of the right ventricle usually occurring first. The effects of mechanically immobilizing the preparation to reduce motion artifact were also characterized. Activation patterns in epicardially paced rhythm were insensitive to this procedure over the range of applied force tested. In sinus rhythm, however, a relatively large immobilizing force caused prolonged PQ intervals as well as altered ventricular activation patterns. The time-dependent effects of the dye on the rat heart were characterized and include 1) a transient vasodilation at the onset of dye perfusion and 2) a long-lasting prolongation of the PQ interval of the electrocardiogram, frequently resulting in brief episodes of atrioventricular block.
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ABSTRACT: Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ∼30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ∼10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.Journal of Biomedical Optics 09/2012; 17(9):96007-1. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance, which characterizes type 2 diabetes, is associated with reduced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation, and diabetic patients with insulin resistance show a higher incidence of ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to examine whether GLUT4 deficiency leads to more severe alterations in cardiac electrical activity during cardiac stress using hypoxia. To fulfill this aim, we compared cardiac electrical activity from cardiac selective GLUT4 ablated (G4H-/-) mouse hearts and corresponding control (CTL) littermates. A custom-made cylindrical 'cage' electrode array measured potentials (Ves) from the epicardium of isolated, perfused mouse hearts. The normalized average of the maximum downstroke of Ves (|dVes/dtmin|na), which we previously introduced as an index of electrical activity in normal, ischemic and hypoxic hearts, was used to assess the effects of GLUT4 deficiency on electrical activity. |dVes/dtmin|na of G4H-/- and CTL hearts decreased by 75% and 47% respectively (p<0.05) 30 min after the onset of hypoxia. Administration of insulin attenuated decreases in values of |dVes/dtmin|na in G4H-/- hearts as well as CTL, during hypoxia, in general, however, G4H-/- hearts showed severe alteration of propagation sequence and prolonged total activation time. Results of this study demonstrate that reduced glucose availability associated with insulin resistance and a reduction in GLUT4 mediated glucose transport impairs electrical activity during hypoxia, and may contribute to cardiac vulnerability to arrhythmias in diabetic patients.Experimental physiology 11/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Testing cardiac gene and cell therapies in vitro requires a tissue substrate that survives for several days in culture while maintaining its physiological properties. The purpose of this study was to test whether culture of intact cardiac tissue of neonatal rat ventricles (organ explant culture) may be used as a model to study gene and cell therapy. We compared (immuno) histology and electrophysiology of organ explant cultures to both freshly isolated neonatal rat ventricular tissue and monolayers. (Immuno) histologic studies showed that organ explant cultures retained their fiber orientation, and that expression patterns of α-actinin, connexin-43, and α-smooth muscle actin did not change during culture. Intracellular voltage recordings showed that spontaneous beating was rare in organ explant cultures (20%) and freshly isolated tissue (17%), but common (82%) in monolayers. Accordingly, resting membrane potential was -83.9±4.4 mV in organ explant cultures, -80.5±3.5 mV in freshly isolated tissue, and -60.9±4.3 mV in monolayers. Conduction velocity, measured by optical mapping, was 18.2±1.0 cm/s in organ explant cultures, 18.0±1.2 cm/s in freshly isolated tissue, and 24.3±0.7 cm/s in monolayers. We found no differences in action potential duration (APD) between organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue, while APD of monolayers was prolonged (APD at 70% repolarization 88.8±7.8, 79.1±2.9, and 134.0±4.5 ms, respectively). Organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue could be paced up to frequencies within the normal range for neonatal rat (CL 150 ms), while monolayers could not. Successful lentiviral (LV) transduction was shown via Egfp gene transfer. Co-culture of organ explant cultures with spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes increased the occurrence of spontaneous beating activity of organ explant cultures to 86%. We conclude that organ explant cultures of neonatal rat ventricle are structurally and electrophysiologically similar to freshly isolated tissue and a suitable new model to study the effects of gene and cell therapy.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59290. · 3.53 Impact Factor