Voltage-sensitive dye mapping in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts.
ABSTRACT An imaging system suitable for recordings from Langendorff-perfused rat hearts using the voltage-sensitive dye 4-[beta-[2-(di-n-butylamino)-6-naphthyl]vinyl]pyridinium (di-4-ANEPPS) has been developed. Conduction velocity was measured under hyper- and hypokalemic conditions, as well as at physiological and reduced temperature. Elevation of extracellular [K(+)] to 9 mM from 5.9 mM caused a slowing of conduction velocity from 0.66 +/- 0.08 to 0.43 +/- 0.07 mm/ms (35%), and reduction of the temperature to 32 degrees C from 37 degrees C caused a slowing from 0.64 +/- 0.07 to 0.46 +/- 0.05 mm/ms (28%). Ventricular activation patterns in sinus rhythm showed areas of early activation (breakthrough) in both the right and left ventricle, with breakthrough at a site near the apex of the right ventricle usually occurring first. The effects of mechanically immobilizing the preparation to reduce motion artifact were also characterized. Activation patterns in epicardially paced rhythm were insensitive to this procedure over the range of applied force tested. In sinus rhythm, however, a relatively large immobilizing force caused prolonged PQ intervals as well as altered ventricular activation patterns. The time-dependent effects of the dye on the rat heart were characterized and include 1) a transient vasodilation at the onset of dye perfusion and 2) a long-lasting prolongation of the PQ interval of the electrocardiogram, frequently resulting in brief episodes of atrioventricular block.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiological research greatly rely on the use of cultured primary cardiomyocytes (CMs). The prime methodology to assess CM network electrophysiology is based on the use of extracellular recordings by substrate-integrated planar Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs). Whereas this methodology permits simultaneous, long-term monitoring of the CM electrical activity, it limits the information to extracellular field potentials (FPs). The alternative method of intracellular action potentials (APs) recordings by sharp- or patch-microelectrodes is limited to a single cell at a time. Here, we began to merge the advantages of planar MEA and intracellular microelectrodes. To that end we cultured rat CM on micrometer size protruding gold mushroom-shaped microelectrode (gMμEs) arrays. Cultured CMs engulf the gMμE permitting FPs recordings from individual cells. Local electroporation of a CM converts the extracellular recording configuration to attenuated intracellular APs with shape and duration similar to those recorded intracellularly. The procedure enables to simultaneously record APs from an unlimited number of CMs. The electroporated membrane spontaneously recovers. This allows for repeated recordings from the same CM a number of times (>8) for over 10 days. The further development of CM-gMμE configuration opens up new venues for basic and applied biomedical research.Frontiers in Neuroengineering 01/2012; 5:21.
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ABSTRACT: Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ∼30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ∼10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.Journal of Biomedical Optics 09/2012; 17(9):96007-1. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Testing cardiac gene and cell therapies in vitro requires a tissue substrate that survives for several days in culture while maintaining its physiological properties. The purpose of this study was to test whether culture of intact cardiac tissue of neonatal rat ventricles (organ explant culture) may be used as a model to study gene and cell therapy. We compared (immuno) histology and electrophysiology of organ explant cultures to both freshly isolated neonatal rat ventricular tissue and monolayers. (Immuno) histologic studies showed that organ explant cultures retained their fiber orientation, and that expression patterns of α-actinin, connexin-43, and α-smooth muscle actin did not change during culture. Intracellular voltage recordings showed that spontaneous beating was rare in organ explant cultures (20%) and freshly isolated tissue (17%), but common (82%) in monolayers. Accordingly, resting membrane potential was -83.9±4.4 mV in organ explant cultures, -80.5±3.5 mV in freshly isolated tissue, and -60.9±4.3 mV in monolayers. Conduction velocity, measured by optical mapping, was 18.2±1.0 cm/s in organ explant cultures, 18.0±1.2 cm/s in freshly isolated tissue, and 24.3±0.7 cm/s in monolayers. We found no differences in action potential duration (APD) between organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue, while APD of monolayers was prolonged (APD at 70% repolarization 88.8±7.8, 79.1±2.9, and 134.0±4.5 ms, respectively). Organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue could be paced up to frequencies within the normal range for neonatal rat (CL 150 ms), while monolayers could not. Successful lentiviral (LV) transduction was shown via Egfp gene transfer. Co-culture of organ explant cultures with spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes increased the occurrence of spontaneous beating activity of organ explant cultures to 86%. We conclude that organ explant cultures of neonatal rat ventricle are structurally and electrophysiologically similar to freshly isolated tissue and a suitable new model to study the effects of gene and cell therapy.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59290. · 3.73 Impact Factor