A statistical method for analyzing rating scale data: the BBB locomotor score.
ABSTRACT The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale is widely used to test behavioral consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) to the rat. Sensitivity of this rating scale can differentiate hind limb locomotor skills over a wide range of injury severities. While the 21-point BBB scale is ordinal in nature, the present discussion recommends the use of parametric statistics to evaluate the locomotor results. Specifically, it defines appropriate statistical analysis of these data in order to facilitate interpretation of results between laboratories and to provide a common methodology for the correct interpretation of SCI behavioral data.
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ABSTRACT: Secondary damage is a critical determinant of the functional outcome in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), and involves multiple mechanisms of which the most important is the loss of nerve cells mediated by multiple factors. Autophagy can result in cell death, and plays a key role in the development of SCI. It has been recognized that valproic acid (VPA) is neuroprotective in certain experimental animal models, however, the levels of autophagic changes in the process of neuroprotection by VPA treatment following SCI are still unknown. In the present study, we determined the extent of autophagy after VPA treatment in a rat model of SCI. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly increased at 1, 2, and 6 h after SCI and peaked at 2 h; however, Western blot showed that autophagy was markedly decreased by VPA treatment at 2 h post-injury. Besides, post-SCI treatment with VPA improved the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale, increased the number of ventral horn motoneurons, and reduced myelin sheath damage compared with vehicle-treated animals at 42 days after SCI. Together, our results demonstrated the characteristics of autophagy expression following SCI, and found that VPA reduced autophagy and enhanced motor function.Neuroscience Bulletin 07/2013; · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF- β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:340727.
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of loaded and unloaded swimming stimulation after central nerve system injury in the rats. SCI model rats were damaged in L1-L2 injected with 6-OHDA. The twenty one Sprague-Dawley adult male rats weights() were randomly divided into control group and 2 swimming groups and then swimming groups divided into 15 minute unloaded swimming group and 15 minute loaded swimming group by swimming intensity. Behavioral Change was evaluated by the BBB(Basso, Brestti, Brenahan) scales test and the maximal angles of the inclined board on which the rat could maintain its intial position for the progressive locomotor recovery. Using enzyme-linked immunosolbent assays(ELISA), we measured concentrations of brain-delived growth factor(BDNF) in serum after swimming. There was significant change of BBB scores in control group as compared to unloaded swimming group and loaded swimming group(pThe Journal of the Korea Contents Association. 01/2009; 9(12).