A statistical method for analyzing rating scale data: the BBB locomotor score.
ABSTRACT The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale is widely used to test behavioral consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) to the rat. Sensitivity of this rating scale can differentiate hind limb locomotor skills over a wide range of injury severities. While the 21-point BBB scale is ordinal in nature, the present discussion recommends the use of parametric statistics to evaluate the locomotor results. Specifically, it defines appropriate statistical analysis of these data in order to facilitate interpretation of results between laboratories and to provide a common methodology for the correct interpretation of SCI behavioral data.
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ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immediate disruption of the spinal vascular network, triggering an ischemic environment and initiating secondary degeneration. Promoting angiogenesis and vascular stability through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), respectively, provides a possible therapeutic approach in treating SCI. We examined whether supplementing the injured environment with these two factors, which are significantly reduced following injury, has an effect on lesion size and functional outcome. Sustained delivery of both VEGF(165) and Ang-1 was realized using viral vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV), which were injected directly into the lesion epicenter immediately after injury. Our results indicate that the combined treatment with VEGF and Ang-1 resulted in both reduced hyperintense lesion volume and vascular stabilization, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Western blot analysis indicated that the viral vector expression was maintained into the chronic phase of injury, and that the use of the AAV vectors did not exacerbate infiltration of microglia into the lesion epicenter. The combined treatment with AAV-VEGF and AAV-Ang-1 improved locomotor recovery in the chronic phase of injury. These results indicate that combining angiogenesis with vascular stabilization may have potential therapeutic applications following SCI.Journal of neurotrauma 11/2010; 27(11):2067-76. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF- β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:340727.
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ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 04/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor