Associated injuries in pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament tears: does a delay in treatment increase the risk of meniscal tear?
ABSTRACT To evaluate the incidence of associated injuries and meniscal tears in children and adolescents with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, we performed a retrospective review of patients, age 14 and younger, who were treated surgically at our institution.
We reviewed 39 patients (30 girls, 9 boys) with an average age of 13.6 years (range, 10 to 14 years) who underwent surgical treatment of the ACL; 24 right knees and 15 left knees were treated. Of the injuries treated, 24 occurred by a twisting mechanism, 10 were the result of contact, and 5 occurred from hyperextension. Thirty-five injuries occurred during sports activities, and 2 were sustained in motor vehicle accidents. The mean duration from injury to operative treatment was 101 days (range, 7 to 696 days). Injuries were classified as acute (n = 17) if surgery was performed within 6 weeks of injury and chronic (n = 22) if surgery was performed after 6 weeks from injury. Relationships between medial and lateral meniscal injuries and the time from injury to surgery were analyzed, and the 2 groups, acute and chronic, were compared. Finally, the patterns of meniscal injury were compared.
Twenty-six patients had associated injuries (10 medial meniscal tears, 15 lateral meniscal tears, 3 medial collateral ligament tears, and 1 fractured femur). The association between medial meniscal tears and time from injury to surgery was highly statistically significant (P =.0223). There was no statistical significance between the incidence of lateral meniscal tears and time. Medial meniscal tears were more common in the chronic group (36%) than in the acute group (11%), whereas lateral meniscal tears were found with equal frequency. Medial meniscal tears that required surgical treatment (either partial excision or repair) were more common in the chronic group, and lateral meniscal tear patterns were equally distributed.
Evidence from this study supports the contention that associated injuries are common in young individuals with ACL tears. Furthermore, the data also show that a delay in surgical treatment was associated with a higher incidence of medial meniscal tears.
Dataset: Traumatic anterior cruciate ligament tear and its implications on meniscal degradation: a preliminary novel lapine osteoarthritis model.
Article: Knieverletzungen im Wachstumsalter[show abstract] [hide abstract]
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Article: Outcomes and risks of operative treatment of rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament in children and adolescents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and risks of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in children and adolescents. We electronically searched Medline, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Database, Embase, and Medpilot for studies on surgical treatment for ACL ruptures in skeletally immature patients. We extracted baseline demographics, follow-up intervals, surgical details (i.e., ligament suture or reconstruction, physeal-sparing or transphyseal techniques, type of transplant, and methods of fixation). Endpoints comprised rates of growth disturbances and reruptures, as well as knee function (measured by the International Knee Documentation Committee's documentation system and the Lysholm score). Unweighted overall effect sizes (risks, risk ratios [RRs], and means of functional scores) were estimated by use of crude nominators and denominators, and random-effects meta-regression analysis was used for weighted data synthesis. A total of 55 articles reporting on 935 patients (median age, 13 years; range, 1.5 to 16 years) were suitable for the study. After a median follow-up of 40 months (range, 14 to 89 months), the weighted rate of leg-length differences or axis deviations was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0% to 3.9%] and that of reruptures was 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9% to 6.7%). Excellent or good function (International Knee Documentation Committee grade A or B) was achieved in 84.2% (95% CI, 75.8% to 92.6%) of all knees, and Lysholm scores averaged 96.3 (95% CI, 95.5 to 97.2). Transphyseal reconstruction was associated with a significantly lower risk of leg-length differences or axis deviations compared with physeal-sparing techniques (1.9% v 5.8%; RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.81) but had a higher risk of rerupture (4.2% v 1.4%; RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 0.70 to 12.12). Sutures did not result in any growth disturbances, with a weighted rerupture rate of 4.6% (95% CI, 2.6 to 6.7). Fixation far from the joint line fared better than close fixation with regard to this endpoint (1.4% v 3.2%; RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.93). Bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts, which are also less likely to fail, were associated with higher risks of leg-length differences or axis deviations than were hamstrings (3.6% v 2.0%; RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.66 to 5.03). Meta-regression did not show a significant impact of the publication year on event rates. This meta-analysis showed low rates of leg-length differences or axis deviations and graft failures after ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. Hamstring transplants may lower the risk of leg-length differences or axis deviations, and physeal-sparing techniques may increase the risk. Randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify important issues in managing ACL ruptures in children and adolescents. Level IV, meta-analysis of case series.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 11/2010; 26(11):1539-50. · 3.02 Impact Factor