Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid Study.
ABSTRACT Although adequacy of nutrient intake has been studied considerably in children and adolescents across Europe, the factors associated with nutritional risk have rarely been addressed. This study was developed in order to explore the nutritional intakes of Spanish children and the factors influencing the risk of nutritional inadequacy.
To evaluate socio-economic and lifestyle variables associated with nutritional adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study utilising face-to-face interviews. A random sample of 3,534 individuals aged 2-24 years were interviewed by a team of 43 dieticians in the subjects' homes. Interviews included two 24-hour recalls (a second 24-hour recall in 25% of the sample) and other questions, including lifestyle. Weight and height were measured in all subjects. Under-reporters (18%) were excluded from the present analysis. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with greater nutritional risk.
The participation rate was 68%. Twenty percent of males and 50% of females were classified as being at high nutritional risk. Variables associated with increased nutritional risk were: age between 14 and 24 years, being female, low social class, low educational level of the mother, having more than one sibling, smoking, watching TV during meals, sedentary habits at leisure time, infrequent meals and a poor quality breakfast. One dietary factor closely associated with nutritional risk was a failure to consume ready-to-eat cereals.
Nutritional risk during infancy and adolescence is associated with socio-economic and educational variables of the family, and some lifestyle factors including physical activity and the quality of the breakfast meal.
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ABSTRACT: Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.The British journal of nutrition 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential mediating effect of parental education on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and obesity, in 10-12 years old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 1,125 (529 male) children in Greece. Children and their parents completed standardized questionnaires, which evaluated parents' educational level and dietary habits. Body mass index was calculated and children were classified as normal, overweight or obese (IOTF classification). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the KIDMED score. RESULTS: 27.7% of the children were overweight and 6.3% were obese; 12.3% of children reported high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Multi-adjusted analysis, stratified by parental education, revealed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with children's obesity status only in families in which at least one parent was of higher educational level (stratum-specific adjusted odds ratio: 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.98), but not those in which both parents were of low educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education status seems to play a mediating role in the beneficial effect of Mediterranean diet on children's obesity status.International Journal of Public Health 11/2012; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. METHODS: Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9--10 years) in Ina Town during 1999--2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. RESULTS: Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1):766. · 2.08 Impact Factor