Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid Study.
ABSTRACT Although adequacy of nutrient intake has been studied considerably in children and adolescents across Europe, the factors associated with nutritional risk have rarely been addressed. This study was developed in order to explore the nutritional intakes of Spanish children and the factors influencing the risk of nutritional inadequacy.
To evaluate socio-economic and lifestyle variables associated with nutritional adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study utilising face-to-face interviews. A random sample of 3,534 individuals aged 2-24 years were interviewed by a team of 43 dieticians in the subjects' homes. Interviews included two 24-hour recalls (a second 24-hour recall in 25% of the sample) and other questions, including lifestyle. Weight and height were measured in all subjects. Under-reporters (18%) were excluded from the present analysis. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with greater nutritional risk.
The participation rate was 68%. Twenty percent of males and 50% of females were classified as being at high nutritional risk. Variables associated with increased nutritional risk were: age between 14 and 24 years, being female, low social class, low educational level of the mother, having more than one sibling, smoking, watching TV during meals, sedentary habits at leisure time, infrequent meals and a poor quality breakfast. One dietary factor closely associated with nutritional risk was a failure to consume ready-to-eat cereals.
Nutritional risk during infancy and adolescence is associated with socio-economic and educational variables of the family, and some lifestyle factors including physical activity and the quality of the breakfast meal.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.Nutrients 10/2014; 6(10):4073-4092. DOI:10.3390/nu6104073 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reliability of the information collected in dietary assessment can be affected by different factors. One of the main sources of error in dietary assessment is misreporting which encompass under- and overreporting. Underreporting of food intake is one of the major problems in the assessment of habitual dietary intake. Physical and psychosocial characteristics that are related to energy underreporting include sex, age, weight, BMI, fear of negative evaluation and dieting among others. At present, diverse reference methods are employed to verify the results of dietary assessment and double labelled water is used as the gold standard method. Underreporting affects the estimation of nutrient intake and also alters associations between diet and disease assessed in epidemiological studies. Therefore, underreporting has to be considered and addressed by researchers through development and improvement of dietary intake adjustment methods, and taking advantage of the new technologies for assessing dietary intake in order to minimize underreporting bias. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean Diet, through a healthy profile of fat intake, carbohydrate atlow glycaemic index, high content of dietary fibre, antioxidants and anti- inflammatory compounds, reduces the risk of certain pathologies such as cardiovascular disease. However, it represents anything much more than a dietary regimen and it is also characterised by its links to the various food cultures ofthedifferentcountriesoftheMediterraneanarea.Ontheotherhand,the traditional cuisineofthePugliaregion(Southern Italy) isbasedonanutritionalmodelmainlyvegetarian becauseonlyasmallshareofcaloriesisof animal origin;cerealsarethebasicingredient,pulsesand oliveoilthemainproteinandfatsource,respectively. Inthispaperwereportedtheculture,history, identity andheritageofthisculinarymodeloftheSouthern Italytraditiontounderstandpossible linkages withtheMediterraneanDiet.Moreover, some traditional recipesofthePugliac12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijgfs.2014.12.001