Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid Study.
ABSTRACT Although adequacy of nutrient intake has been studied considerably in children and adolescents across Europe, the factors associated with nutritional risk have rarely been addressed. This study was developed in order to explore the nutritional intakes of Spanish children and the factors influencing the risk of nutritional inadequacy.
To evaluate socio-economic and lifestyle variables associated with nutritional adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study utilising face-to-face interviews. A random sample of 3,534 individuals aged 2-24 years were interviewed by a team of 43 dieticians in the subjects' homes. Interviews included two 24-hour recalls (a second 24-hour recall in 25% of the sample) and other questions, including lifestyle. Weight and height were measured in all subjects. Under-reporters (18%) were excluded from the present analysis. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with greater nutritional risk.
The participation rate was 68%. Twenty percent of males and 50% of females were classified as being at high nutritional risk. Variables associated with increased nutritional risk were: age between 14 and 24 years, being female, low social class, low educational level of the mother, having more than one sibling, smoking, watching TV during meals, sedentary habits at leisure time, infrequent meals and a poor quality breakfast. One dietary factor closely associated with nutritional risk was a failure to consume ready-to-eat cereals.
Nutritional risk during infancy and adolescence is associated with socio-economic and educational variables of the family, and some lifestyle factors including physical activity and the quality of the breakfast meal.
- SourceAvailable from: Massimiliano Renna[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean Diet, through a healthy profile of fat intake, carbohydrate atlow glycaemic index, high content of dietary fibre, antioxidants and anti- inflammatory compounds, reduces the risk of certain pathologies such as cardiovascular disease. However, it represents anything much more than a dietary regimen and it is also characterised by its links to the various food cultures ofthedifferentcountriesoftheMediterraneanarea.Ontheotherhand,the traditional cuisineofthePugliaregion(Southern Italy) isbasedonanutritionalmodelmainlyvegetarian becauseonlyasmallshareofcaloriesisof animal origin;cerealsarethebasicingredient,pulsesand oliveoilthemainproteinandfatsource,respectively. Inthispaperwereportedtheculture,history, identity andheritageofthisculinarymodeloftheSouthern Italytraditiontounderstandpossible linkages withtheMediterraneanDiet.Moreover, some traditional recipesofthePugliac12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijgfs.2014.12.001
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The traditionally recommended intakes of nutrients (RI) were established according to the amount of nutrients necessary to prevent deficiency symptoms from appearing. However, in countries where the population is mainly sedentary and enjoys a high life expectancy, the contemporary significance of "optimum nutrition" is also related with the following objectives: Maintaining body reserves. Reducing the prevalence of chronic diseases. Reducing morbidity. Improving the quality of life. The recommendations on the amounts of nutrients are not useful for these populations since they do not know how to take use of them. For this reason, other tools are being developed to advise them. These tools take into account the whole diet, and not just nutritional needs. The objective of this paper is to analyze in depth the usefulness of the KIDMED index in making nutritional assessments of populations of children in the Mediterranean area. The KIDMED index is based on the principles of the traditional Mediterranean diet. Using a questionnaire composed of 16 items whose point values are then added up, diets can be classified according to this scale: or = 8: optimum Mediterranean diet The results obtained applying the KIDMED index to a sample of 162 children between the ages of 9 and 12 from the Madrid metropolitan area are shown in the following table: Quality of diet N % Very poor quality 25 15.4 Needs improvement 77 47.5 Optimum Mediterranean diet 60 37.5 Introduction01/2006;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary practices of soccer players of different ages. The diets of the members of four soccer teams (mean ages of 14.0, 15.0, 16.6 and 20.9 years, respectively) were examined. Our results show that the caloric intake per kilogram of body mass was significantly higher among the youngest players when compared with the adult players (P < 0.05). The contribution of carbohydrates to total energy intake was lower than that recommended for athletes. This contribution decreased with age from 47.4% of total energy intake for the 14-year-olds to 44.6% for the adult players. No significant differences in protein or total fat intake were detected among the teams examined. Overall, our results show that the nutritional intake of the soccer players was not optimal, and that this intake was poorer among the adult players than among the adolescents. On the basis of our results, we recommended that nutritional education should be given to soccer players at an early age and should continue throughout adolescence, not only with a view to improving performance but also to promoting more healthy dietary practices in the long term.Journal of Sports Sciences 04/2005; 23(3):235-42. DOI:10.1080/02640410410001730160 · 2.10 Impact Factor