Candidate Genes Colocalized to Linkage Regions in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ABSTRACT The genes encoding for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are colocalized to inflammatory bowel disease-associated linkage regions on chromosomes 6, 7 and 12. An association study of these gene polymorphisms with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and a stratification according to disease phenotypes was performed in order to identify genetically homogenous subgroups.
119 healthy, unrelated controls, 95 patients with Crohn's disease and 93 patients with ulcerative colitis were genotyped for the (G to A) -308 TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism on chromosome 6, the codon 497 EGFR polymorphism on chromosome 7 and the TaqI polymorphism of the VDR gene on chromosome 12. After genotyping, patients were stratified according to the respective disease phenotype.
A disequilibrium in the distribution of the VDR genotypes was found in patients with ulcerative colitis compared to controls (p = 0.024). In fistulizing and fibrostenotic Crohn's disease the 'TT' genotype was significantly reduced compared with other phenotypes (p = 0.006), whereas the 'tt' genotype was found more frequently (p = 0.04). The frequency of the WT allele of the EGFR gene was significantly higher in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.04) than in controls. Further significant differences, concerning the associations of the different polymorphisms and disease susceptibility or clinical phenotypes, were not observed.
Regardless of the disease phenotype, the associations between the polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease investigated herein are modest, even after stratification for the disease phenotypes. Hence, these polymorphisms are unlikely to confer the reported linkage between inflammatory bowel disease and chromosomes 6, 7 and 12.
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- "This identification heightens the potential importance of EGFR in atherogenesis and other inflammatory disease. A few studies have shown that polymorphism of EGFR was associated with susceptibility of some inflammatory diseases [42,43]. For example, Wang et al.  reported that asthmatic patients had a significantly higher incidence of having shorter alleles (≤ 16 CA repeats) compared with control subjects (P < 0.05). "
ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene had been implicated in the susceptibility to some tumors and inflammatory diseases. EGFR has been recently implicated in vascular pathophysiological processes associated with excessive remodeling and atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinical manifestation of preceding atherosclerosis. Our purpose was to investigate the association of the EGFR polymorphism with the risk of ACS. In this context, we analyzed the HER-1 R497K and EGFR intron 1 (CA)n repeat polymorphisms in 191 patients with ACS and 210 age- and sex-matched controls in a Chinese population, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy and direct sequencing. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene between cases and controls. The Lys allele had a significantly increased risk of ACS compared with the Arg allele (adjusted OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.12-1.98, adjusted P = 0.006). However, no significant relationship between the number of (CA)n repeats of EGFR intron 1 (both alleles < 20 or any allele > or = 20) and the risk of ACS was observed (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.58-1.64, adjusted P = 0.911). Considering these two polymorphisms together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. R497K polymorphism of the EGFR gene is significantly associated with the risk of ACS. Our data suggests that R497K polymorphism may be used as a genetic susceptibility marker of the ACS.BMC Medical Genetics 02/2008; 9:74. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-9-74 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The discoveries that activated macrophages produce 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25-(OH)2D3), and that immune system cells express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), suggested that the vitamin D endocrine system influences immune system function. In this review, we compare and contrast how 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and degradation is regulated in kidney cells and activated macrophages, summarize data on hormone receptor function and expression in lymphocytes and myeloid lineage cells, and discuss how locally-produced 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 may activate a negative feed-back loop at sites of inflammation. Studies of immunity in humans and animals lacking VDR function, or lacking vitamin D, are viewed to gain insight into the immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. The strong associations between poor vitamin D nutrition, particular VDR alleles, and susceptibility to chronic mycobacterial infections, together with evidence that 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 served as a vaccine adjuvant enhancing antibody-mediated immunity, suggest a model wherein high levels of 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3-liganded VDR transcriptional activity may promote the CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated and mucosal antibody responses to cutaneous antigens in vivo. We also review a diverse and rapidly growing body of epidemiological, climatological, genetic, nutritional and biological evidence indicating that the vitamin D endocrine system functions in the establishment and/or maintenance of immunological self tolerance. Studies done in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and transplantation support a model wherein the 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 may augment the function of suppressor T cells that maintain self tolerance to organ-specific self antigens. The recent progress in infectious disease, autoimmunity and transplantation has stimulated a gratifying renaissance of interest in the vitamin D endocrine system and its role in immunological health.Cellular and molecular biology 04/2003; 49(2):277-300. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a strong genetic component. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene maps to a region on chromosome 12 shown to be associated with IBD in some studies. In this case-control study we determined the association between the BsmI VDR gene polymorphism and IBD in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colits (UC). Three hundred seventy-nine Jewish Israeli patients with IBD, 228 with CD (129 Ashkenazi and 99 non-Ashkenazi), and 151 patients with UC (72 Ashkenazi, 79 non-Ashkenazi) were studied. The control group included 495 healthy blood donors (352 non-Ashkenazi and 143 Ashkenazi). All subjects were genotyped for the BsmI VDR gene polymorphism. The frequency of the BB genotype was higher in Ashkenazi patients with UC compared to Ashkenazi controls (0.21 vs. 0.11, p = 0.042, odds ratio 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-4.9). There were no differences in the prevalence of the BB genotype or the B allele between ethnically matched patients with CD and UC. Nor were there differences in the BB genotype or B allele frequencies between CD patients and ethnically matched controls. The BsmI VDR gene polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to UC in Israeli Ashkenazi patients with UC.Genetic Testing 02/2004; 8(4):417-20. DOI:10.1089/gte.2004.8.417 · 1.65 Impact Factor