Role of the anterior temporal lobe in repetition and semantic priming: Evidence from a patient with a category-specific deficit

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy
Neuropsychologia (Impact Factor: 3.3). 02/2003; 41(1):71-84. DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00131-8
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Neuroimaging studies in healthy participants have implicated anterior temporal lobe regions and the fusiform gyrus in repetition priming and semantic priming. Only the investigation of patients with selective lesions, however, can establish the necessity of these particular regions. To this end, we administered three tests of repetition priming (pseudoword identification; masked-form priming; category-exemplar generation) and a test of semantic priming to a patient (J.P.) with a category-specific deficit stemming from bilateral damage to the anterior fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal regions. On all of the repetition priming tasks, J.P. showed priming effects within 1 S.D. of 10 age- and education-matched CON; ANOVAs indicated no interaction between group and prime condition. These findings suggest that the anterior fusiform and anterior temporal lobe are not required for these priming effects. J.P. also showed normal repetition priming even for items that he had never been able to name or to provide semantic information about. On the semantic priming task, J.P. showed normal levels of priming across categories. When we separately analyzed his priming for items he could never name or access information about versus items that he had been able to name on at least two testing sessions, we found priming for the latter items, but not for the former. This result suggests that category-specific deficits resulting from damage to the anterior temporal lobes may disrupt the automatic, rapid access of semantic information of some items.

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Available from: Elizabeth A Kensinger, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "The fastpaced (trial-by-trial) CSE should likely involve the type of quick episodic encoding (and retrieval) of trial features typically associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, including the hippocampus (e.g., Squire, 1992). An intriguing possibility, based on extant literature, is that as the binding process moves from more concrete (physical stimulus) features to more abstract (e.g., attentional state) features, the interaction between the MTL and cortical regions may shift along a posterior to anterior gradient—specifically, interactions with posterior ventral visual stream regions (and motor cortex) for concrete features (e.g., Kühn et al., 2011), the anterior temporal lobe stream for categorical stimulus features (e.g., Kensinger et al., 2003), and lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the binding of control-level features (e.g., Egner and Hirsch, 2005; King et al., 2012). A thorough examination of the mechanisms underlying multi-level learning effects that transcend the traditional separation of associative versus control-based cognitive processing should make for an exciting and highly important future avenue of research. "
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    Frontiers in Psychology 11/2014; 5:1247. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01247 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Although there has been controversy surrounding the presence and nature of semantic memory difficulty in AD (Koenig and Grossman 2007), one contributing factor may be the distribution of cortical disease. Activation studies of semantic memory using explicit probes frequently activate posterolateral temporal cortex (Martin et al. 1996; Josephs 2001; Grossman, Smith, et al. 2002; Kensinger et al. 2003; Koenig et al. 2005; Grossman, White-Devine, et al. 2007), a multimodal association region with reciprocal projections involving modality-specific association cortices (Mesulam 2000). Limited functioning of posterolateral temporal neocortex appears to be associated with semantic memory difficulty in AD (Grossman et al. 1997; Desgranges et al. 1998; Grossman, Koenig, et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: We used a prototype extraction task to assess implicit learning of a meaningful novel visual category. Cortical activation was monitored in young adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed occipital deactivation at test consistent with perceptually based implicit learning, and lateral temporal cortex deactivation reflecting implicit acquisition of the category's semantic nature. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during exposure and test suggested involvement of explicit memory as well. Behavioral performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy seniors was also assessed, and AD performance was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. AD patients showed learning, consistent with preserved implicit memory, and confirming that AD patients' implicit memory is not limited to abstract patterns. However, patients were somewhat impaired relative to healthy seniors. Occipital and lateral temporal cortical volume correlated with successful AD patient performance, and thus overlapped with young adults' areas of deactivation. Patients' severe MTL atrophy precluded involvement of this region. AD patients thus appear to engage a cortically based implicit memory mechanism, whereas their relative deficit on this task may reflect their MTL disease. These findings suggest that implicit and explicit memory systems collaborate in neurologically intact individuals performing an ostensibly implicit memory task.
    Cerebral Cortex 05/2008; 18(12):2831-43. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhn043 · 8.67 Impact Factor
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    • "Specifically, semantically related pairs were expected to modulate activation in areas that are sensitive to meaningful associations. On the basis of previous functional imaging and neuropsychological studies, we expected these areas to include left inferior frontal [Kotz et al., 2002; Copland et al., 2003], anterior temporal [Hodges et al., 1992, 2000; Bozeat et al., 2000; Kensinger et al., 2003], middle temporal [Chertkow et al., 1997; Mummery et al., 1998; Copland et al., 2003], and parietal [Demonet et al., 1992; Mummery et al., 1998] regions. Likewise, phonologically related pairs were expected to modulate activation in areas that are sensitive to phonological and articulatory demands. "
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