Behavioral impairment of APP(V717F) mice in fear conditioning: is it only cognition?
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a devastating human neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities. The APP(V717F) mouse, an animal model of AD showing robust overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) carrying the mutation 717 V --> F, was also shown to exhibit learning and memory performance deficits. However, AD patients suffer from other abnormalities including altered emotionality. Emotionality has not been analyzed in AD mouse models. Here, motor and posture patterns exhibited by APP(V717F) mice are described in a detailed manner in fear conditioning, a paradigm that allows one to test both mnemonic and emotional characteristics of mice. Our results revealed a complex set of behavioral alterations in APP(V717F) mice in measures of exploratory behavior and fear suggesting that the effects of APP(V717F) overexpression in this mouse model are not limited to cognition and may need to be thoroughly examined in the future in a broad range of behavioral tests.
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ABSTRACT: Lavender is a popular treatment for stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae)) lavender odour inhalation over 2 weeks or 24 h periods, on gerbil behaviour in the elevated plus maze in mature male and female gerbils, and compared results with the effects of diazepam (1 mg/kg) i.p. after 30 min and 2-week administration. Traditional measures of open entries showed an increasing trend over the 2 weeks exposure, whereas ethological measures indicative of anxiety; stretch-attend frequency and percentage protected head-dips, were significantly lower. Exploratory behaviour, total head-dip frequency, increased after 24 h lavender and 2 weeks exposure. These results are comparable with diazepam administration. There were sex differences in protected head-dip an ethological indicator of anxiety: females showed a significant decrease in protected head-dips compared to both males and to female controls. In conclusion exposure to lavender odour may have an anxiolytic profile in gerbils similar to that of the anxiolytic diazepam. In addition, prolonged, 2-week lavender odour exposure increased exploratory behaviour in females indicating a further decrease in anxiety in this sex.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2007; 111(3):517-25. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2006.12.021 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative affliction of the elderly, presenting with progressive memory loss and dementia and terminating with death. There have been significant advances in understanding the biology and subsequent diagnosis of AD; however, the furious pace of research has not yet translated into a disease-modifying treatment. While scientific inquiry in AD is largely centered on identifying biological players and pathological mechanisms, the day-to-day realities of AD patients and their caregivers revolve around their steady and heartbreaking cognitive decline. In the past decade, AD research has been fundamentally transformed by the development of genetically modified animal models of amyloid-driven neurodegeneration. These important in vivo models not only replicate some of the hallmark pathology of the disease, such as plaque-like amyloid accumulations and astrocytic inflammation, but also some of the cognitive impairments relevant to AD. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of the behavioral and cognitive deficits present in several transgenic mouse models of AD and discuss their functional changes in response to experimental treatments.Genes Brain and Behavior 05/2005; 4(3):173-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2005.00124.x · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss and personality changes, leading to dementia. Histopathological hallmarks are represented by aggregates of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in senile plaques and deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Rare forms of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease are due to gene mutations. This has prompted researchers to develop genetically modified animals that could recapitulate the main features of the disease. The use of these models is complemented by non-genetically modified animals. Areas covered: This review summarizes the characteristics of the most used transgenic (Tg) and non-Tg models of AD. The authors have focused on models mainly used in their laboratories including amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg2576, APP/presenilin 1, 3xAD, single h-Tau, non-Tg mice treated with acute injections of Aβ or tau, and models of physiological aging. Expert opinion: Animal models of disease might be very useful for studying the pathophysiology of the disease and for testing new therapeutics in preclinical studies but they do not reproduce the entire clinical features of human AD. When selecting a model, researchers should consider the various factors that might influence the phenotype. They should also consider the timing of testing/treating animals since the age at which each model develops certain aspects of the AD pathology varies.Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 04/2015; DOI:10.1517/17460441.2015.1041913 · 3.47 Impact Factor