Maximal isometric muscle strength of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom.
Clinical Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.24). 11/2002; 16(7):772-9. DOI: 10.1191/0269215502cr552oa
Source: PubMed


To describe the maximal isometric neck muscle strength in healthy Chinese volunteers, in six different directions, as measured by a Multi Cervical Rehabilitation Unit.
A standardized cross-sectional observational study.
A university rehabilitation unit.
Ninety-one healthy volunteers aged 20-84.
During the measurement the subject was instructed to do three consecutive steady contractions as hard as possible, with a 10-second rest in between each contraction and a 2-minute rest between different directions. The peak isometric strength for each of the six directions (flexion, extension, lateral flexions, protraction and retraction) was calculated.
No significant difference was found in muscle strength between different age groups. Isometric muscle strength in the direction of right lateral flexion was significantly greater than that to the left in men (p = 0.030), but no difference was found in women (p = 0.297). Isometric strength in all directions in men was 1.2-1.7 times that in women (all p < 0.028). Correlations between physical measurements (height and weight) and strength values were all insignificant in both genders.
Men have approximately 20-70% greater isometric neck muscle strength than women. Both men and women can maintain high levels of cervical muscle strength in six different directions up to their seventh decade. There is no significant correlation between physical measurements and isometric neck muscle strength.

27 Reads
  • Source
    • "Our results showed that the prevalence of NSP and LBP were significantly higher in girls compared to boys, which is consistent with the findings of numerous domestic and foreign surveys on adults and adolescents [3,9,10]. We speculate that this finding may be related to the following reasons: (a) boys always have a higher pain threshold than girls [14,15]; (b) the special hormonal changes in girls during puberty [16]; (c) the lower physical activity levels of girls compared to boys; (physical activity is reported to be a positive factor in preventing musculoskeletal diseases; however, the current research did not find an association between physical activity and NSP or LBP) [17]; (d) the tendency of girls to have more mental stress than boys, where stress has been found to correlate with musculoskeletal diseases [3,18,19]; and (e) the heritability of NSP in girls is higher than in boys [20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP) among current high school students in Shanghai and explores the relationship between these pains and their possible influences, including digital products, physical activity, and psychological status. An anonymous self-assessment was administered to 3,600 students across 30 high schools in Shanghai. This questionnaire examined the prevalence of NSP and LBP and the level of physical activity as well as the use of mobile phones, personal computers (PC) and tablet computers (Tablet). The CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) scale was also included in the survey. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test, univariate logistic analyses and a multivariate logistic regression model. Three thousand sixteen valid questionnaires were received including 1,460 (48.41%) from male respondents and 1,556 (51.59%) from female respondents. The high school students in this study showed NSP and LBP rates of 40.8% and 33.1%, respectively, and the prevalence of both influenced by the student's grade, use of digital products, and mental status; these factors affected the rates of NSP and LBP to varying degrees. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, tablet use, sitting time after school and academic stress entered the final model of NSP, while the final model of LBP consisted of gender, grade, soreness after exercise, PC using habits, mobile phone use, sitting time after school, academic stress and CES-D score. High school students in Shanghai showed high prevalence of NSP and LBP that were closely related to multiple factors. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of NSP and LBP.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78109. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078109 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In addition, the superficial muscles of the neck-shoulder region, i.e., the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene and upper trapezius muscles, demonstrate increased activities compared to deeper postural stabilizers like the deep cervical flexors8). Moreover, several studies have reported significantly lower maximal isometric strength of both the cervical flexors and extensors in patients with chronic neck pain compared to healthy controls9,10,11) and one study also found weakness of the neck rotator muscles12). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] To compare muscle activities and pain levels of females with chronic neck pain receiving different exercise programs. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred females with chronic neck pain participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n = 25) on the basis of the exercises performed as follows: strength-endurance exercise, craniocervical flexion exercise, combination of strength-endurance and craniocervical flexion exercise and control groups. Pain, disability levels and changes in the muscle activities of the cervical erector spinae (CE), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), anterior scalenes (AS) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles were evaluated before and after the interventions. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise intervention, all three exercise groups showed improvements in pain and disability. The muscle activities during the typing task were significantly different from the control group in all three exercise groups for all muscles except those of the extensor muscles in the craniocervical flexion exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that exercises for the cervical muscles improve pain and disability. The exercise programs reduced the activities of almost all cervical muscles.
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science 09/2013; 25(9):1157-1162. DOI:10.1589/jpts.25.1157 · 0.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This may also explained partially by women having a lower pain threshold than males. Torgen et al. suggested that pressure pain thresholds increased with muscle strength and Chiu et al. found that the isometric neck muscle strength in all directions for men was 1.2–1.7 times those in women [30,31]. Moreover, we found females bore more heavy housework than male in daily life, and some authors suggest that differentials in household task participation may explain WMSDs differences between men and women [25,32]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP). Epidemiological data on NSP and LBP in Chinese teachers are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NSP and LBP among primary, secondary and high school teachers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of teachers from 7 schools, information on participant demographics, work characteristics, occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms and pain were collected. Results Among 893 teachers, the prevalence of NSP and LBP was 48.7% and 45.6% respectively. There was significant association between the level and prevalence of NSP and LBP among teachers in different schools. The prevalence of NSP among female teachers was much higher than that for males. Self-reported NSP was associated with physical exercise (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.86), prolonged standing (1.74, 1.03 to 2.95), sitting (1.76, 1.23 to 2.52) and static posture (2.25, 1.56 to 3.24), and uncomfortable back support (1.77, 1.23 to 2.55). LBP was more consistently associated with twisting posture (1.93, 1.30 to 2.87), uncomfortable back support (1.62, 1.13 to 2.32) and prolonged sitting (1.42, 1.00 to 2.02) and static posture (1.60, 1.11 to 2.31). Conclusions NSP and LBP are common among teachers. There were strong associations with different individual, ergonomic, and occupational factors.
    BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1):789. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-789 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Show more