Imaging the posterior segment in uveitis.
ABSTRACT This article reviews established and newly developed posterior segment imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients with uveitis. A brief description of various techniques is followed by a discussion of the situations in which these techniques might be useful in assessing the cause of vision loss, and the extent and activity of the inflammatory changes. The last section of the article describes selected uveitis syndromes wherein posterior segment imaging can reveal diagnostically characteristic, and in some instances pathognomonic, findings.
Article: In vitro measurement of rabbit corneal epithelial thickness using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to reproducibly measure corneal epithelial thickness centrally and at the limbus in the rabbit cornea using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twelve freshly enucleated New Zealand white rabbit eyes were kept in a moist chamber at 4 degrees C. An ultrahigh resolution OCT system with a spatial resolution of 1.3 microm was used to image the cornea and its component layers. The central and peripheral (limbal) regions of all the samples were scanned within 6 h of harvest in order to minimize the post-mortem degradation of the corneal epithelium. The thickness of the corneal epithelium was determined by measuring the pixel equivalents of the obtained image. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to evaluate differences. The epithelial thickness centrally was found to be 45.8 +/- 2.2 microm, and 37.6 +/- 1.4 microm at the limbus (P < 0.001). Rabbit corneal epithelium is thicker centrally than at the limbus when measured by ultrahigh resolution OCT. This technique will aid in delineating the pathophysiology of diseases of the anterior cornea.Veterinary Ophthalmology 8(2):85-8. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye's propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology.Molecular vision 01/2012; 18:2538-60. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Panuveitis is a generalized inflammation of not only the whole of the uveal tract but also involves the retina and vitreous humor. It differs from other anatomical sites of inflammation in terms of causes as well as distribution. The common causes of panuveitis in our population are tuberculosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, Behcet's disease and sarcoidosis. A large number of cases still remain idiopathic. A stepwise approach is essential while evaluating these patients to be able to identify and treat the disease timely and correctly. Ancillary tests can be appropriately applied once the anatomic site of inflammation is identified. An exhaustive approach comprising a full battery of tests is obsolete. Only specific tailored investigations are ordered as suggested by the preliminary clinical and ocular examination. The mainstay of the treatment of uveitis is corticosteroids. Immunosuppressive agents are administered if the inflammation is not adequately controlled with corticosteroids. One of the recent breakthroughs in the treatment of refractory uveitis includes the introduction of immunomodulating drugs: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist and Interferon-alpha. Vitrectomy has been used in uveitis for over a few decades for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. When compared to other anatomical sites of inflammation, panuveitis has poor visual outcome due to more widespread inflammation. The side-effects of the chronic treatment that these patients receive cannot be overlooked and should be specifically monitored under the supervision of an internist with special interest in inflammatory diseases.Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 58(1):45-54. · 1.02 Impact Factor