Immune status and autoantibody formation in children with chronic hepatitis B infection.
ABSTRACT The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a wide spectrum of disease which ranges from acute hepatitis to liver cirrhosis. Patients who fail to mount a vigorous immune response in acute HBV develop chronic infection. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the cellular and humoral immune parameters of the patients with chronic HBV and to evaluate the prevalence of autoantibodies before the beginning of immunomodulator and antiviral therapy.
In this comparative study, serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses, secretory IgA, serum complement components, lymphocyte subsets and CD11a, CD18, CD54 molecules on lymphocytes were determined in 44 hospitalized patients of chronic HBV infection and 20 cases of healthy control subjects.
Significant increase in IgG and significant decrease in the complement C4 were observed. The mean percentage of CD3+ lymphocytes, reflecting the percentage of total T cells was significantly higher in the patient group due to the increase of CD8+ lymphocytes. The mean percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes was lower in the patient group secondary to the increase of their total T cells. No significant difference was found in cell surface adhesion molecules between patient and control groups. The percentage of antinuclear antibody positivity was 18.2%.
Our data show that ANA formation is part of the natural course of chronic HBV infection and this value may reflect the tendency to autoimmune diseases and the importance of clinical follow-up. The abnormalities observed in immunological parameters may reflect the role of the cellular and humoral immune system in pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: To study IgG subclasses for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (anti-HBc) in different populations, a comparison was made between 104 chronic carriers (60 male and 44 female) and 434 recovered individuals (247 male and 192 female). Biochemistry analyses of AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) were also performed. Among the 104 chronic carriers, 21 patients were found to be ALT and AST abnormal (> 25 IU/ml). After comparing these ALT and AST abnormal patients with other ALT and AST normal chronic carriers, no statistical difference was observed in the OD values of the anti-HBe (p > 0.05). The ELISA results showed the anti-HBc IgG subclass pattern was IgG1 > IgG3 > IgG4 in chronic carriers and IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG4 in recovered individuals (p < 0.05). This result suggests the IgG1/IgG3 ratio may be related with HBV status. However, in spite of the different anti-HBc IgG1/IgG3 patterns demonstrated in different populations, both anti-HBc IgG1 and IgG3 concentrations were significantly higher in chronic carriers (p < 0.05). Therefore, both the anti-HBc IgG1/IgG3 ratio and their amounts differed. They may play a significant role in chronic carriers and recovered individuals. The anti-HBc IgG subclass profiles of chronic carriers were not changed regardless of liver inflammation, and were independent of sex and age.Cellular & molecular immunology 11/2005; 2(5):393-8. DOI:10.1089/vim.2006.19.277 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complement component 9 (C9), a major cytolytic protein in the complement system, plays an important role in the immunological process. However, associations between genetic variations of the complement factor and chronic hepatitis B virus infection still need to be investigated. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the complement component 9 gene can influence the clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, and onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma. To investigate the relationship between complement component 9 variations and these disease phenotypes, we performed a case-control association analysis in a Korean population. Genetic variations were identified through direct DNA sequencing and genotyped using TaqMan assay (n = 1,103). In order to investigate the relationship of complement component 9 with chronic hepatitis B virus clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, differences in SNP and haplotype frequency distributions were analyzed using logistic and multiple regression analyses with adjusted age and gender as covariates. Although +23189C>T polymorphism in exon 4 and C9_ht2 [T-G-C-A-C] were significantly associated with clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, the association signals were not retained after multiple testing corrections. We conclude that variations in the complement component 9 gene are unlikely to influence clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence. Although this preliminary result provides meaningful information, further functional investigations in other genetic factors for pathway analyses are required.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2011; 56(9):2735-41. DOI:10.1007/s10620-011-1657-3 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Autoantibody testing is used to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). However, various autoantibodies are often detectable in patients with CLD due to other causes too. Since data on autoantibody prevalence in Indian patients with CLD are limited, we decided to undertake the current study. METHODS: Patients with CLD with a known cause other than AIH and a separate group of patients with CLD in whom no cause could be identified were studied. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) and anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibodies (anti-LKM). Serum dilutions tested were 1:80 for ANA and 1:40 for other autoantibodies. RESULTS: Of the 175 patients with CLD of a known cause, 69 (39 %) had one or more autoantibodies, including ANA in 35 (20 %) patients and ASMA in 44 (25 %) patients. None had anti-LKM. The prevalence rates of any autoantibody, ANA and ASMA were similar in patients with CLD due to alcohol (34 %, 20 %, and 24 %, respectively), HCV infection (43 %, 20 %, and 26 %) and HBV infection (40 %, 18 %, and 25 %). The most common ANA pattern observed was speckled (29/35 patients), followed by nucleolar (5/35) and homogeneous (1/35). The ASMA titers did not exceed 1:80. The antibody prevalence rates were similar in patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis, and in those with different disease severity. Serum IgG levels were similar in patients with and without detectable autoantibodies. Patients with no known cause of CLD (n = 50) had similar prevalence rates of autoantibodies, ANA or ASMA. CONCLUSION: Autoantibodies were detected in a large proportion of patients with CLD, both cryptogenic and with known cause. Detection of autoantibodies in CLD does not necessarily indicate a diagnosis of AIH, and presence of homogenous pattern of ANA may be more relevant. Indiscriminate testing for autoantibodies in patients with CLD, especially those with a known cause, may not be warranted.Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s12664-012-0247-4