Expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the pancreas of hamster, mouse, and rat, responding differently to the pancreatic carcinogenicity of BOP
ABSTRACT N-nitroso-bis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) induces pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters, but not in rats or mice. To examine whether this difference is due to the diversity in the presence and distribution of enzymes involved in the metabolism of BOP, the cellular expression of nine cytochrome P-450 isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8,9,19, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP3A4) and of three glutathione S-transferase isozymes (GST-pi, GST-alpha, and GST-mu) was investigated in the pancreas of hamsters, rats, and mice by immunohistochemistry.
We found a wide species variation in the presence and cellular localization of the enzymes and a lack of several enzymes, including GST-alpha in islets, CYP2B6, CYP2C8,9,19, CYP3A1 in acinar cells, and CYP3A4 in ductal cells, in the rat as compared with hamster and mouse.
Although the results could not clarify the reasons for the species differences in the pancreatic carcinogenicity of BOP, the presence of most of the cytochrome P-450 isozymes in pancreatic islets of all three species highlights the important role of the islets in drug metabolism.
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- "In rodents, certain kinds of chemicals have been demonstrated to induce pancreatic acinar cell tumors but not ductal ones in rats (Longnecker & Curphey, 1975; Longnecker et al., 1980), whereas Syrian (golden) hamsters are sensitive to ductal carcinogenesis with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (Kitahashi et al., 2010; Ulrich et al., 2002) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (Furukawa et al., 1992). In the present study, the toxicological effects of 13-weeks exposure to AA in drinking water were therefore evaluated in Syrian hamsters for dose selection of chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. "
ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA) is known to induce tumors in various organs/tissues in rats and mice. Epidemiological studies of oral exposure have generated controversial results but mortality studies of people who work with AA have indicated increased rates of pancreatic cancer. In the present study, for dose selection for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, 13-week toxicity of AA was evaluated in Syrian hamsters, which are sensitive to induction of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, at concentrations required to provide doses of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight in drinking water. Treatment with AA caused abnormal gait advancing to hind limb paralysis in all males and females at 50 mg kg(-1) . Body weights in 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) males and 50 mg kg(-1) females were lower than in the controls. At termination of the study, red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were decreased or showed a tendency for a decrease at 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) in females. Microscopically, axonal/myelin degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed in all AA-treated groups with dose dependence. No obvious changes were found in pancreatic ducts/ductules in any groups of animal. These results indicated the maximum tolerated dose for long-term studies of AA to be 20 mg kg(-1) or less in both male and female Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Applied Toxicology 03/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1002/jat.2831 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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- "CYP2E1 protein is expressed and inducible within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. These results have been confirmed by others  . We have also engineered two insulin secreting cell lines which express human CYP2E1 for further elucidation of the role of CYP2E1 in ketone-stimulated insulin release. "
ABSTRACT: The role of CYP2E1 in ketone-stimulated insulin release was investigated using isolated pancreatic islets of Langerhans and two mammalian insulin secreting pancreatic beta-cell lines engineered to stably express human CYP2E1 (designated BRIN BD11h2E1 and INS-1h2E1). Isolated rat pancreatic islets were shown to express the CYP2E1 isoform which was inducible by pretreatment of animals with acetone. The cDNA encoded CYP2E1 was expressed and inducible in the engineered cells as shown by Western blotting. The transfected protein was enzymatically active in the heterologous cells as determined by p-nitrophenol hydroxylation rates (0.176 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.341 +/- 0.08 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein in BRIN BD11 control cells and BRIN BD11h2E1 cells respectively, P < 0.001; 0.204 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.633 +/- 0.102 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein in INS-1 and INS-1h2E1, respectively, P < 0.001). Cultivation of CYP2E1 expressing BRIN BD11h2E1 and INS-1h2E1 cells in 40 mM ethanol increased the rate of p-nitrophenol hydroxylation (0.968 +/- 0.09 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein, P < 0.001 and 0.846 +/- 0.103 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein, P < 0.001, respectively) providing further evidence that the heterologous protein is inducible. Cultivation of control cells with ethanol had no observable effect (0.186 +/- 0.05 and 0.195 +/- 0.03 in BRIN BD11 and INS-1, respectively). These cell lines also express NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase protein which was enzymatically active (0.632 +/- 0.023 in parental BRIN BD11 vs. 0.657 +/- 0.066 without ethanol and 0.824 +/- 0.014 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein with ethanol in BRIN BD11h2E1, P < 0.05; and 1.568 +/- 0.118 in parental INS-1 vs. 1.607 +/- 0.093 without ethanol and 1.805 +/- 0.066 nmol/min/mg microsomal protein with ethanol in INS-1h2E1, P < 0.05) thereby providing a functional cytochrome P450 system. The insulin secretory response of control cell lines and islets was similar to cell lines and islets which had been chemically pretreated, to induce CYP2E1 expression, in response to known nutrient secretagogues. However, insulin output was significantly higher in pretreated islets (1.3-fold, P < 0.05) and CYP2E1 expressing cell lines (BRIN BD11h2E1 2.3-fold, P < 0.001; INS1-1h2E1 1.6-fold, P < 0.001) when stimulated with the ketone 3-hydroxybutyrate than control islets and parental cell lines respectively. Similar acute exposure to acetoacetate enhanced insulin secretion by 1.3-fold (P < 0.05) in pretreated islets, 2.6-fold (P < 0.001) in ethanol pretreated BRIN BD11h2E1 and 1.4-fold (P < 0.001) in ethanol pretreated INS-1h2E1 cells compared to the respective control islets or ethanol pretreated control parental cells. Therefore, these studies highlight a possible role for CYP2E1 in pancreatic cell dysfunction.Biochemical Pharmacology 04/2004; 67(5):875-84. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2003.10.011 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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- "In this context, the expression of CYP2E1 by PP cells, which are frequently present in a large number within the ductal epithelium , is noteworthy, because this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of carcinogenic nitrosamines, some of which are present in tobacco smoke [47,48], and suggested to present pancreatic carcinogens. Whether or not this peculiar distribution of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in PP cells is the reason for the frequent development of pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas , is a hypothetical question. "
ABSTRACT: The concept of pancreatic cancer origin is controversial. Acinar, ductal or islet cells have been hypothesized as the cell of origin. The pros and cons of each of these hypotheses are discussed. Based on the world literature and recent observations, pancreatic cells seem to have potential for phenotypical transdifferentiation, i.e ductal-islet, ductal-acinar, acinar-ductal, acinar-islet, islet-acinar and islet-ductal cells. Although the possibility is discussed that cancer may arise from either islet, ductal or acinar cells, the circumstances favoring the islet cells as the tumor cell origin include their greater transdifferentiation potency into both pancreatic and extrapancreatic cells, the presence of a variety of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, some of which are present exclusively in islet cells and the growth factor-rich environment of islets.Molecular Cancer 02/2003; 2:13. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-2-13 · 4.26 Impact Factor