A single amino acid exchange inverts susceptibility of related receptor tyrosine kinases for the ATP site inhibitor STI-571
ABSTRACT The tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI-571 potently blocks BCR-Abl, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alpha- and beta-receptors, and c-Kit kinase activity. Flt3, a receptor tyrosine kinase closely related to PDGF receptors and c-Kit is, however, not inhibited by STI-571. Sequence alignments of different kinases and indications from the crystal structure of the STI-571 Abl kinase complex revealed amino acid residues that are probably crucial for this activity profile. It was predicted that Flt3 Phe-691 in the beta5 strand may sterically prevent interaction with STI-571. The point mutants Flt3 F691T and PDGFbeta-receptor T681F were constructed, and kinase assays showed that the Flt3 mutant but not the PDGFbeta-receptor mutant is inhibited by STI-571. Docking of STI-571 into computer models of the PDGFbeta-receptor and Flt3 kinase domains and comparison with the crystal structure of the STI-571 Abl kinase complex indicated very similar binding sites among the three nonphosphorylated kinases, suggesting corresponding courses of their Asp-Phe-Gly motifs and activation loops. Accordingly, we observed reduced sensitivity of preactivated compared with nonactivated PDGFR-beta for the inhibition by STI-571. Courses of the activation loop that collide with STI-571 binding explain its inactivity at other kinases as the insulin receptor. The binding site models of PDGFR-beta and Flt3 were applied to predict structural approaches for more selective PDGFbeta-receptor inhibitors.
- SourceAvailable from: Doriano Fabbro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The inherited or acquired deregulation of protein kinase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Therefore, the inhibition of kinases has been proposed to be a promising strategy in the context of anti-cancer treatment. Many other kinases have been selected as drug discovery targets based on the prevalence of mutations, over-expression and unscheduled activation in human cancer. Of the various protein kinases chosen, Src family kinases are amongst the most extensively studied kinase oncogenes in academia and industry. This review focuses on our current understanding of the deregulation and role of Src family kinases in human cancer and leukemia. Recent data implicate the action of c-Src in cancer metastasis, mediated by up-regulation of various protease systems (calpain, uPA) as well as disruption of E-cadherin signalling. Moreover, novel roles of various Src family members in the development of human leukemia have been found. New insights into downstream signalling mechanisms, including the activation of STAT3, PDK1 and Akt, further corroborate the importance of Src family kinases in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Despite our rather clear understanding of Src family kinases as pro-oncogenes no Src family kinase inhibitor has entered a clinical trial so far. This review will discuss prerequisites to be fulfilled for clinically targeting c-Src and its homologues using small molecule drugs.Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2003; 9(25):2043-59. DOI:10.2174/1381612033454126 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some protein kinases are known to acquire resistance to selective small molecule inhibitors upon mutation of a conserved threonine at the ATP binding site to a larger residue. Here, we performed a comprehensive mutational analysis of this structural element and determined the cellular sensitivities of several disease-relevant tyrosine kinases against various inhibitors. Mutant kinases possessing a larger side chain at the critical site showed resistance to most compounds tested, such as ZD1839, PP1, AG1296, STI571, and a pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine inhibitor. In contrast, indolinones affected both wild-type and mutant kinases with similar potencies. Resistant mutants were established for pharmacological analysis of βPDGF receptor-mediated signaling and allowed the generation of a drug-inducible system of cellular Src kinase activity. Our data establish a conserved structural determinant of protein kinase sensitivity relevant for both signal transduction research and drug development.Chemistry & Biology 05/2004; 11(5):691-701. DOI:10.1016/S1074-5521(04)00116-4 · 6.59 Impact Factor
- Planta Medica 01/2007; 73(09). DOI:10.1055/s-2007-987162 · 2.34 Impact Factor