Accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy.
ABSTRACT Glial cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of glial cytoplasmic inclusions remain unclear. Alpha-synuclein, a major component of glial cytoplasmic inclusions, has the ability to interact with 14-3-3 proteins, which mediate several types of signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of these 14-3-3 proteins in patients with multiple system atrophy, we performed immunohistochemical studies on 14-3-3 in brain tissue specimens from 7 control subjects and from 15 patients with multiple system atrophy. In both control and multiple system atrophy cases, 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was observed mainly in the neuronal somata and proximal processes, as well as the nerve fibers. Even in the severely affected regions of patients with multiple system atrophy, 14-3-3 immunoreactivity generally was spared in the surviving neurons, some of which were strongly immunolabeled. In addition, numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions were intensely immunostained, and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites were also immunoreactive for 14-3-3. Our results suggest that an aberrant accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins may occur in brains affected by multiple system atrophy, and that 14-3-3 proteins may be associated with the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy.
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ABSTRACT: The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved, ubiquitous molecules involved in a variety of biologic events, such as cell cycle control, and apoptosis. In our previous study, it has been proved that they are expressed in primary human nervous system tumors. However, the isoform-specific expression of 14-3-3 protein is still need to be identified. This study is the first detection of 14-3-3 isoforms' specific expression in human astrocytoma. In the normal brain tissues, all the seven 14-3-3 isoforms' immunoreactivity was localized mainly in the neurons, while only weak expression of epsilon, zeta and theta was found in some glial cells. However, beta, epsilon, zeta, eta and theta isoforms' immunoreactivity was seen in the majority of astrocytoma samples and its immunoreactivity score was increased markedly with an increase in the pathologic grade of human astrocytomas. These results indicate that the five isoforms may play an important role in tumorigenesis of human astrocytoma.Neuroscience Letters 03/2008; 432(2):94-9. · 2.11 Impact Factor
Article: Colocalization of 14-3-3 proteins with SOD1 in Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and the animal model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a major component of Lewy body-like hyaline inclusion (LBHI) found in the postmortem tissue of SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) patients. In our recent studies, 14-3-3 proteins have been found in the ubiquitinated inclusions inside the anterior horn cells of spinal cords with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To further investigate the role of 14-3-3 proteins in ALS, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of 14-3-3 proteins and compared their distributions with those of SOD1 in FALS patients and SOD1-overexpressing mice. We examined the postmortem brains and the spinal cords of three FALS cases (A4V SOD1 mutant). Transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutant human SOD1 (mutant SOD1-Tg mice), transgenic mice expressing the wild-type human SOD1 (wild-type SOD1-Tg mice), and non-Tg wild-type mice were also subjected to the immunohistochemical analysis. In all the FALS patients, LBHIs were observed in the cytoplasm of the anterior horn cells, and these inclusions were immunopositive intensely for pan 14-3-3, 14-3-3β, and 14-3-3γ. In the mutant SOD1-Tg mice, a high degree of immunoreactivity for misfolded SOD1 (C4F6) was observed in the cytoplasm, with an even greater degree of immunoreactivity present in the cytoplasmic aggregates of the anterior horn cells in the lumbar spinal cord. Furthermore, we have found increased 14-3-3β and 14-3-3γ immunoreactivities in the mutant SOD1-Tg mice. Double immunofluorescent staining showed that C4F6 and 14-3-3 proteins were partially co-localized in the spinal cord with FALS and the mutant SOD1-Tg mice. In comparison, the wild-type SOD1-Tg and non-Tg wild-type mice showed no or faint immunoreactivity for C4F6 and 14-3-3 proteins (pan 14-3-3, 14-3-3β, and 14-3-3γ) in any neuronal compartments. These results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may be associated with the formation of SOD1-containing inclusions, in FALS patients and the mutant SOD1-Tg mice.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20427. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates cerebral amyloid angiopathy and promotes cortical microinfarcts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) observed in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease tend to be located close to vessels afflicted with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). CMIs in Alzheimer's disease are preferentially distributed in the arterial borderzone, an area most vulnerable to hypoperfusion. However, the causal association between CAA and CMIs remains to be elucidated. This study consists of two parts: (1) an observational study using postmortem human brains (n = 31) to determine the association between CAA and CMIs, and (2) an experimental study to determine whether hypoperfusion worsens CAA and induces CMIs in a CAA mouse model. In postmortem human brains, the density of CMIs was 0.113/cm(2) in mild, 0.584/cm(2) in moderate, and 4.370/cm(2) in severe CAA groups with a positive linear correlation (r = 0.6736, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that, among seven variables (age, disease, senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, CAA, atherosclerosis and white matter damage), only the severity of CAA was a significant multivariate predictor of CMIs (p = 0.0022). Consistent with the data from human brains, CAA model mice following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis induced with 0.18-mm diameter microcoils showed accelerated deposition of leptomeningeal amyloid β (Aβ) with a subset of them developing microinfarcts. In contrast, the CAA mice without hypoperfusion exhibited very few leptomeningeal Aβ depositions and no microinfarcts by 32 weeks of age. Following 12 weeks of hypoperfusion, cerebral blood flow decreased by 26% in CAA mice and by 15% in wild-type mice, suggesting impaired microvascular function due to perivascular Aβ accumulation after hypoperfusion. Our results suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates CAA, and thus promotes CMIs.Acta Neuropathologica 12/2011; 123(3):381-94. · 9.32 Impact Factor