Effects of prune consumption on the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone.
ABSTRACT A higher urinary ratio of the biologically inactive estrogen metabolite, 2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE1), to the biologically active metabolite, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE1), may be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. High fiber intake is also associated with decreased breast cancer risk.
We investigated the effects of prunes, which are naturally rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber, on the concentrations of 2OHE1 and 16alphaOHE1 and on the ratio of 2OHE1 to 16alphaOHE1.
Nineteen healthy premenopausal women consumed their habitual diets for 3 menstrual cycles and then consumed 100 g prunes/d for the next 3 cycles. Concentrations of urinary 2OHE1 and 16alphaOHE1 were determined during the follicular and luteal phases.
Prune supplementation increased total and soluble fiber intakes by 4 and 2 g/d, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean (+/- SEM) luteal 2OHE1 excretion decreased from 3.92 +/- 0.79 to 2.20 +/- 0.40 nmol/mmol creatinine during the third cycle (P = 0.017). Luteal 16alphaOHE1 excretion decreased from 1.38 +/- 0.24 to 0.87 +/- 0.10 and 0.87 +/- 0.15 nmol/mmol creatinine during the first and third cycles, respectively (P = 0.018 for both values). Follicular 16alphaOHE1 excretion decreased significantly only during the first cycle (from 0.82 +/- 0.12 to 0.45 +/- 0.09 nmol/mmol creatinine; P = 0.005). The 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio did not change significantly after prune supplementation.
Prune supplementation significantly decreased the excretion of 16alphaOHE1 during the follicular phase of the first menstrual cycle and during the luteal phases of both the first and third menstrual cycles. The 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio did not change significantly. The potential significance of the decrease in 16alphaOHE1 excretion, without a change in the 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio, on the prevention of estrogen-dependent cancers remains to be determined.
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ABSTRACT: Yam (Dioscorea) has been used to treat menopausal symptom folklorically. This study was to investigate the effects of yam ingestion on lipids, antioxidant status, and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited to replace their staple food (rice for the most part) with 390 g of yam (Dioscorea alata) in 2 of 3 meals per day for 30 days and 22 completed the study. Fasting blood and first morning urine samples were collected before and after yam intervention for the analyses of blood lipids, sex hormones, urinary estrogen metabolites and oxidant stress biomarker. The design was a one arm, pre-post study. A similar study of postmenopausal women (n = 19) fed 240 g of sweet potato for 41 days was included as a control study. Serum levels of estrone, estradiol and SHBG were analyzed for this control group. After yam ingestion, there were significant increases in serum concentrations of estrone (26%), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (9.5%), and near significant increase in estradiol (27%). No significant changes were observed in serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Free androgen index estimated from the ratio of serum concentrations of total testosterone to SHBG decreased. Urinary concentrations of the genotoxic metabolite of estrogen, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone decreased significantly by 37%. Plasma cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 5.9%. Lag time of low-density lipoprotein oxidation prolonged significantly by 5.8% and urinary isoprostane levels decreased significantly by 42%. For the control subjects fed with sweet potato, all three hormone parameters measured were not changed after intervention. Although the exact mechanism is not clear, replacing two thirds of staple food with yam for 30 days improves the status of sex hormones, lipids, and antioxidants. These effects might reduce the risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women.Journal of the American College of Nutrition 09/2005; 24(4):235-43. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2005.10719470 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes composition of dried plums and their products (prune juice and dried plum powder) with special attention to possibly bioactive compounds. Dried plums contain significant amounts of sorbitol, quinic acid, chlorogenic acids, vitamin K1, boron, copper, and potassium. Synergistic action of these and other compounds, which are also present in dried plums in less conspicuous amounts, may have beneficial health effects when dried plums are regularly consumed. Snacking on dried plums may increase satiety and reduce the subsequent intake of food, helping to control obesity, diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Despite their sweet taste, dried plums do not cause large postprandial rise in blood glucose and insulin. Direct effects in the gastrointestinal tract include prevention of constipation and possibly colon cancer. The characteristic phenolic compounds and their metabolites may also act as antibacterial agents in both gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. The indirect salutary effects on bone turnover are supported by numerous laboratory studies with animals and cell cultures. Further investigation of phenolic compounds in dried plums, particularly of high molecular weight polymers, their metabolism and biological actions, alone and in synergy with other dried plum constituents, is necessary to elucidate the observed health effects and to indicate other benefits.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 01/2013; 53(12):1277-1302. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.563880 · 5.55 Impact Factor