CD34+ cells homing: quantitative expression of adhesion molecules and adhesion of CD34+ cells to endothelial cells exposed to shear stress.
ABSTRACT To investigate the function of the main adhesion receptors (CD62L, CD49d, CD49e, CD11b and CD18) on CD34+ cells during homing, their expression was quantified by flow cytometry using calibration beads. CD34+ cells were isolated from bone-marrow (BM), cord blood (CB) or peripheral blood (PB) from patients with myeloma. As this process might mimic the mature leukocyte migration, we also observed the effect of exposing endothelial cells to shear stress (7 dyn/cm(2)) on the adhesion of CB CD34+ cells. The proportion of CD34+/CD62L+ cells was greater in PB than in BM (p<0.05). Likewise, we found a significantly greater expression of CD62L receptor on PB cells compared to BM cells (p<0.05) and on BM cells compared to CB cells (p<0.05). The proportions of CD34+/CD49d+ cells and CD34+/CD49e+ cells were significantly higher in the BM and CB than in PB. However, no significant difference in CD49d or CD49e antigen densities was observed. The beta_2 integrins (CD11b and CD18) receptors are also implicated in CD34+ cells homing to BM. No significant variation in CD34+/CD11b+ and CD34+/CD18+ cells frequency was noted. However quantitative analysis revealed that CD18 was more strongly expressed on BM cells than on PB and CB cells. The adhesion assay showed that fluid flow may favour a firm adhesion of CB CD34+ cells to endothelial cells whereas static conditions just allowed CD34+ cells sedimentation. In conclusion, quantitative expression of the main receptors on CD34+ cells indicates that the three main sources of CD34+ cells currently used for transplantation have neither the same phenotype nor the same number of antigenic sites for a receptor. So, we hypothesize that migrational capacity of these cells might be different. Moreover, it seems that shear stress could favor adhesion of CD34+ cells to endothelial cells.
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ABSTRACT: Identification and enumeration of human hematopoietic stem cells remain problematic, since in vitro and in vivo stem cell assays have different outcomes. We determined if the altered expression of adhesion molecules during stem cell expansion could be a reason for the discrepancy. CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD38+ cells from umbilical cord blood were analyzed before and after culture with thrombopoietin (TPO), FLT-3 ligand (FL) and kit ligand (KL; or stem cell factor) in different combinations: TPO + FL + KL, TPO + FL and TPO, at concentrations of 50 ng/mL each. Cells were immunophenotyped by four-color fluorescence using antibodies against CD11c, CD31, CD49e, CD61, CD62L, CD117, and HLA-DR. Low-density cord blood contained 1.4 +/- 0.9% CD34+ cells, 2.6 +/- 2.1% of which were CD38-negative. CD34+ cells were isolated using immuno-magnetic beads and cultured for up to 7 days. The TPO + FL + KL combination presented the best condition for maintenance of stem cells. The total cell number increased 4.3 +/- 1.8-fold, but the number of viable CD34+ cells decreased by 46 +/- 25%. On the other hand, the fraction of CD34+CD38- cells became 52.0 +/- 29% of all CD34+ cells. The absolute number of CD34+CD38- cells was expanded on average 15 +/- 12-fold when CD34+ cells were cultured with TPO + FL + KL for 7 days. The expression of CD62L, HLA-DR and CD117 was modulated after culture, particularly with TPO + FL + KL, explaining differences between the adhesion and engraftment of primary and cultured candidate stem cells. We conclude that culture of CD34+ cells with TPO + FL + KL results in a significant increase in the number of candidate stem cells with the CD34+CD38- phenotype.Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 01/2006; 38(12):1775-89. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is compelling evidence that circulating angiogenic cells exist that are able to home to sites of vascular injury and stimulate angiogenesis. However, the number of angiogenic cells in the blood is low, limiting their delivery to sites of ischemia. Treatment with certain cytokines may mobilize angiogenic cells into the blood, potentially circumventing this limitation. Herein, we show that treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or AMD3100, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, significantly stimulated angiogenesis in a murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia. The kinetics of angiogenic-cell mobilization by these agents appears to be distinct, with more rapid revascularization observed in AMD3100-treated mice. Combination treatment with G-CSF and AMD3100 resulted in the earliest and most complete recovery in blood flow to the ischemic hindlimb. Adoptive transfer of mobilized blood mononuclear cells, while potently stimulating angiogenesis, did not result in the significant incorporation of donor cells into the neoendothelium. Cell-fractionation studies showed that it is the monocyte population in the blood that mediates angiogenesis in this model. Collectively, these data suggest that monocytes mobilized into the blood by G-CSF or AMD3100 stimulate angiogenesis at sites of ischemia through a paracrine mechanism.Blood 11/2006; 108(7):2438-45. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies had shown that a combination of the bio-antioxidant catalase and the membrane stabilizer trehalose in the conventional freezing mixture affords better cryoprotection to hematopoietic cells as judged by clonogenic assays. In the present investigation, we extended these studies using several parameters like responsiveness to growth factors, expression of growth factor receptors, adhesion assays, adhesion molecule expression, and long-term culture-forming ability. Cells were frozen with (test cells) or without additives (control cells) in the conventional medium containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Experiments were done on mononuclear cells (MNC) from cord blood/fetal liver hematopoietic cells (CB/FL) and CD34(+) cells isolated from frozen MNC. Our results showed that the responsiveness of test cells to the two early-acting cytokines, viz. interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF) in CFU assays was better than control cells as seen by higher colony formation at limiting concentrations of these cytokines. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of these two growth factor receptors by flow cytometry. We found that in cryopreserved test MNC, as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them, the expression of both cytokine receptors was two- to three-fold higher than control MNC and CD34(+) cells isolated from them. Adhesion assays carried out with CB/FL-derived CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells showed significantly higher adherence of test cells to M210B4 than respective control cells. Cryopreserved test MNC as well as CD34(+) cells isolated from them showed increased expression of adhesion molecules like CD43, CD44, CD49d, and CD49e. On isolated CD34(+) cells and KG1a cells, there was a two- to three-fold increase in a double-positive population expressing CD34/L-selectin in test cells as compared to control cells. Long-term cultures (LTC) were set up with frozen MNC as well as with CD34(+) cells. Clonogenic cells from LTC were enumerated at the end of the fifth week. There was a significantly increased formation of CFU from test cells than from control cells, indicating better preservation of early progenitors in test cells. Our results suggest that use of a combination of catalase and trehalose as a supplement in the conventional freezing medium results in better protection of growth factor receptors, adhesion molecules, and functionality of hematopoietic cells, yielding a better graft quality.Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research 11/2003; 12(5):553-64.