Insulin resistance and associated compensatory responses in african-american and Hispanic children.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare insulin resistance relative to body fat and the associated compensatory responses in 57 healthy children living in Los Angeles, California (14 Caucasians, 15 African-Americans, and 28 Hispanics).
Insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response were determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion, hepatic insulin extraction, and insulin clearance were estimated by C-peptide and insulin modeling.
Insulin sensitivity was significantly lower in Hispanics and African-Americans compared with Caucasian children, and acute insulin response was significantly higher in African-American children. No ethnic differences were noted in the first-phase secretion, but second-phase insulin secretion was significantly higher in Hispanic children than in African-American children (200 +/- 53 vs. 289 +/- 41 nmol/min; P = 0.03). The greater acute insulin response in African-Americans, despite lower secretion, was explained by a lower hepatic insulin extraction in African-Americans compared with Hispanics (36.6 +/- 2.9 vs. 47.3 +/- 2.2%; P = 0.0006).
In conclusion, Hispanic and African-American children are more insulin resistant than Caucasian children, but the associated compensatory responses are different across ethnic groups.
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a link between obesity and the associated disease risk. In addition to its role as an energy regulatory signal to the hypothalamus, insulin also modulates food reward. To examine the relationship of insulin sensitivity (SI) and fasting insulin with cerebral activation in response to food and non-food cues in children. Twelve overweight Hispanic girls (age: 8-11) participated in two study visits, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and a functional neuroimaging session (GE HDxt 3.0Tesla) with visual stimulation tasks. Blocks of images (high calorie [HC], low calorie [LC] and non-food [NF]) were presented in randomized order. Comparing HC with NF, SI was inversely associated with activation in the anterior cingulate (r(2) = 0.65; P < 0.05), the insula (r(2) = 0.69; P < 0.05), the orbitofrontal cortex (r(2) = 0.74; P < 0.05), and the frontal and rolandic operculum (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). Associations remained significant after adjustment for body mass index. Association of fasting insulin and cerebral activation disappeared after adjustment for waist circumference. In addition to weight loss, insulin sensitivity may pose an important target to regulate neural responses to food cues in the prevention of excessive weight gain.Pediatric Obesity 12/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The global pandemic of childhood obesity has led to increased risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown decreased insulin sensitivity and/or secretion with increasing adiposity and consistently observed greater risk for T2DM in obese, non-Caucasian youth. In the current review we describe recent advances in understanding how obesity and metabolic status in children and adolescents confers various risk profiles for T2DM among Latinos, African Americans, Caucasians, Asians, and Native Americans. These possible determinants include ectopic fat distribution, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis, and elevated plasma levels of nonesterified free fatty acids. Future work should aim to elucidate the ethnic-specific pathophysiology of T2DM in order to develop and implement appropriate prevention and treatment strategies based on different ethnic profiles of diabetes risk.Current Diabetes Reports 02/2014; 14(2):455. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is defined as a state where insulin produces a diminished biological response, primarily in its capacity as a glucose-regulating hormone. Insulin resistance is commonly diagnosed by pediatric clinicians, but is rarely measured directly in children or adolescents. This review provides an overview of the techniques that can be used to assess insulin sensitivity in children, summarizing the methods involved, the assumptions, pitfalls, and appropriate uses of each technique, as well as their validation and reproducibility in pediatric samples.Pediatric Diabetes 04/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor