Expression profiling of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggests deficient CD1-mediated immunity, polarized cytokine response, altered adhesion and increased intracellular protein transport and processing of leukemic cells

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Leukemia (Impact Factor: 9.38). 01/2003; 16(12):2429-37. DOI: 10.1038/sj.leu.2402711
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We used oligonucleotide microarrays to profile the expression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells from eight patients compared with CD5-expressing normal B cells from four donors and with pooled normal circulating B cells. Of 6790 genes examined, we identified 87 genes that were differentially expressed at least two-fold between CLL and the normal B cells. CLL cells significantly down-regulated transcripts from CD1c and CD1d genes, which encode proteins known to present lipid antigen and mediate innate and adaptive immunity. The expression pattern was also consistent with reduced signaling by interferon gamma but increased response to interleukin 4 in leukemic cells. CLL cells increased the expression of several collagen-associated extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules, up-regulated many genes involved in intracellular protein transport and processing, while downregulating genes involved in proliferation and metabolism. Based on the expression pattern, we propose that CLL-B cells prolong their survival through increased interaction with survival factors such as IL-4, and through various mechanisms of evading the immune response, such as turning off the expression of CD1c and CD1d, reducing immunogenic response to interferon gamma, inactivating T cell in B-T interaction and increasing the expression of immunoglobulin receptors which neutralize antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  • Leukemia research 04/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.01.011 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 4 (IL-4), an essential mediator of B cell development, plays a role in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. To obtain new insights into the function of the IL-4 pathway in CLL, we analyzed the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and in normal B cells (NBC) by oligonucleotide microarrays, resulting in the identification of 232 non-redundant entities in CLL and 146 in NBC (95 common, 283 altogether), of which 189 were well-defined genes in CLL and 123 in NBC (83 common, 229 altogether) (p<0.05, 2-fold cut-off). To the best of our knowledge, most of them were novel IL-4 targets for CLL (98%), B cells of any source (83%), or any cell type (70%). Responses were significantly higher for 54 and 11 genes in CLL and NBC compared to each other, respectively. In CLL, ZAP-70 status had an impact on IL-4 response, since different sets of IL-4 targets correlated positively or negatively with baseline expression of ZAP-70. In addition, the NFκB inhibitor 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenethylamino)quinazoline, which reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-4, preferentially blocked the response of genes positively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. CCR2, SUSD2), but enhanced the response of genes negatively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. AUH, BCL6, LY75, NFIL3). Dissection of the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and NBC contributes to the understanding of the anti-apoptotic response. Initial evidence of a connection between ZAP-70 and NFκB supports further exploration of targeting NFκB in the context of the assessment of inhibition of the IL-4 pathway as a therapeutic strategy in CLL, especially in patients expressing bad prognostic markers.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109533 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Members of the inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) family of helix-loop-helix proteins have been causally implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of B-cell lineage malignancy, either on the basis of mutation or by altered expression. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders and is the commonest leukaemia type in the Western world. In this study, we have investigated the pathobiological functions of the ID2 and ID3 proteins in this disease with an emphasis on their role in regulating leukemic cell death/survival.Methods Bioinformatics analysis of microarray gene expression data was used to investigate expression of ID2/ID3 in leukemic versus normal B cells, their association with clinical course of disease and molecular sub-type and to reconstruct a gene regulatory network using the `maximum information coefficient¿ (MIC) for target gene inference. In vitro cultured primary leukemia cells, either in isolation or co-cultured with accessory vascular endothelial cells, were used to investigate ID2/ID3 protein expression by western blotting and to assess the cytotoxic response of different drugs (fludarabine, chlorambucil, ethacrynic acid) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. ID2/ID3 protein levels in primary leukemia cells and in MEC1 cells were manipulated by transduction with siRNA reagents.ResultsDatamining showed that the expression profiles of ID2 and ID3 are associated with distinct pathobiological features of disease and implicated both genes in regulating cell death/survival by targeting multiple non-overlapping sets of apoptosis effecter genes. Consistent with microarray data, the overall pattern of ID2/ID3 protein expression in relation to cell death/survival responses of primary leukemia cells was suggestive of a pro-survival function for both ID proteins. This was confirmed by siRNA knock-down experiments in MEC1 cells and in primary leukemia cells, but with variability in the dependence of leukemic cells from different patients on ID protein expression for cell survival. Vascular endothelial cells rescued leukemia cells from spontaneous and cytotoxic drug-induced cell death at least in part, via an ID protein-coupled redox-dependent mechanism.Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a pro-survival function of the ID2/ID3 proteins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and also highlights these proteins as potential determinants of the pathobiology of this disorder.


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