Repeat use of emergency contraception: How frequent is it?
ABSTRACT To measure the level of repeat use of emergency contraception (EC) in family planning clinics (FPCs) in North and East Devon.
An audit of repeat use of EC was carried out in seven FPCs, in parallel with a client survey. All women seeking EC in the study period were included (n = 572).
Nearly 70% of women had 'ever' used EC prior to the study visit; over half had previously used EC in the year of the study; a quarter had previously used EC three or more times in the same period. Teenagers were more likely to have previously used EC in the study year, but half of all repeat users were aged 20 and older. Asked why EC was needed today, most women reported current use of regular contraception, but almost a quarter had had unprotected sex, and half reported a condom mishap.
These results show frequent repeat use of EC and do not support recent research based on general practice records, which suggests that repeat use is rare. If EC users use multiple sources of EC, or prefer alternative sources, repeat use of EC will be underestimated if calculated using general practitioner (GP) records alone.
- International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 08/2012; 119(1):84. · 1.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine whether women use emergency contraception (EC) repeatedly instead of regular contraception methods if they have access to EC. Data from the records of 9201 women who underwent EC 11014 times in the years 2006 through 2008 at Hong Kong clinics were retrospectively analyzed. The χ(2) test was used to look for associations between demographic characteristics and repeated EC use and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the significance of changes in contraceptive use over time. A total of 10845 courses of EC pills and 168 intrauterine devices were provided to the 9201 women, 89.4% of whom used EC once and 8.5% twice within a year. Using EC more than twice was only associated with unstable relationships. The percentages of women using no contraceptives during intercourse decreased from 20.6% at baseline to 4.7% four to 6 weeks after EC, 4.0% at 6 months, and 3.4% at 12 months. The percentages of women using highly effective methods of contraception increased from 3.5% to 20.8%, 27.3%, and 27.7% at the same time points. The low rate of repeated EC use and the positive changes in contraceptive choice after EC are reassuring.International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 06/2012; 118(3):223-6. · 1.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Silicon oxide (SiOx) nanowires are generally grown on Si substrate under the catalysis of Au in N2 atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Because the price of Au metal is quite high, Fe metal is then used to replace a part of Au for catalyzing the growth of SiOx nanowires. The results show that the Fe film can be used as the diffusion barrier of Au. SiOx nanowires are grown on Au/Fe/Si substrate at 1030°C. Under the catalysis of Fe/Au, the efficiency for the growth of SiOx nanowires is promoted.International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials 06/2009; 16(3):317-321. · 0.57 Impact Factor