(1) To determine whether exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) occurs on vascular endothelium in solid tumors in mice. (2) To determine whether PS exposure can be induced on viable endothelial cells in tissue culture by conditions present in the tumor microenvironment.
Externalized PS in vivo was detected by injecting mice with a monoclonal anti-PS antibody and examining frozen sections of tumors and normal tissues for anti-PS antibody bound to vascular endothelium. Apoptotic cells were identified by anti-active caspase-3 antibody or by TUNEL assay. PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells was determined by 125I-annexin V binding.
Anti-PS antibody bound specifically to vascular endothelium in six tumor models. The percentage of PS-positive vessels ranged from 4% to 40% in different tumor types. Vascular endothelium in normal organs was unstained. Very few tumor vessels expressed apoptotic markers. Hypoxia/reoxygenation, acidity, inflammatory cytokines, thrombin, or hydrogen peroxide induced PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells without causing loss of viability.
Vascular endothelial cells in tumors, but not in normal tissues, externalize PS. PS exposure might be induced by tumor-associated oxidative stress and activating cytokines. PS is an abundant and accessible marker of tumor vasculature and could be used for tumor imaging and therapy.
"We hypothesized that because phosphatidylserine (PS) is relatively abundant on the surface of cancer cells and tissues , , it would provide a tumor-specific target for SapC. In comparison to untransformed cells, neoplastic cells are hypermetabolic and thus produce significant amounts of acid and carbon dioxide (CO2) as by-products of anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic respiration, respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only a small number of promising drugs target pancreatic cancer, which is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths with a 5-year survival of less than 5%. Our goal is to develop a new biotherapeutic agent in which a lysosomal protein (saposin C, SapC) and a phospholipid (dioleoylphosphatidylserine, DOPS) are assembled into nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS) for treating pancreatic cancer. A distinguishing feature of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles is their high affinity for phosphatidylserine (PS) rich microdomains, which are abnormally exposed on the membrane surface of human pancreatic tumor cells. To evaluate the role of external cell PS, in vitro assays were used to correlate PS exposure and the cytotoxic effect of SapC-DOPS in human tumor and nontumorigenic pancreatic cells. Next, pancreatic tumor xenografts (orthotopic and subcutaneous models) were used for tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies with systemic SapC-DOPS treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro by inducing apoptotic death, whereas untransformed cells remained unaffected. This in vitro cytotoxic effect correlated to the surface exposure level of PS on the tumor cells. Using xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS showed clear survival benefits and their tumors shrank or disappeared. Furthermore, using a double-tracking method in live mice, we showed that the nanovesicles were specifically targeted to orthotopically-implanted, bioluminescent pancreatic tumors. These data suggest that the acidic phospholipid PS is a biomarker for pancreatic cancer that can be effectively targeted for therapy utilizing cancer-selective SapC-DOPS nanovesicles. This study provides convincing evidence in support of developing a new therapeutic approach to pancreatic cancer.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e75507. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075507 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Endothelial seeding densities that lead to non-confluence result in the activation of the endothelial cells, including HAAE-1 cells, which models the tumor vasculature . Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that annexin V in a fusion protein binds to non-confluent endothelial cells but does not bind to these cells when they are confluent , which means that non-confluent endothelial cells mimic the PS exposure of the tumor vasculature; this is consistent with the finding by others that annexin V binds to phosphatidylserine expressed on endothelial cells of tumor vasculature, but not normal endothelial cells , . The lack of binding of the PNP-AV fusion protein to confluent endothelial cells was further confirmed in this study when we found that a Kd value for specific binding could not be obtained, thus indicating that confluent endothelial cells mimic the normal vasculature. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The targeting of therapeutics is a promising approach for the development of new cancer treatments that seek to reduce the devastating side effects caused by the systemic administration of current drugs. This study evaluates a fusion protein developed as an enzyme prodrug therapy targeted to the tumor vasculature. Cytotoxicity would be localized to the site of the tumor using a protein fusion of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and annexin V. Annexin V acts as the tumor-targeting component of the fusion protein as it has been shown to bind to phosphatidylserine expressed externally on cancer cells and the endothelial cells of the tumor vasculature, but not normal vascular endothelial cells. The enzymatic component of the fusion, PNP, converts the FDA-approved cancer therapeutic, fludarabine, into a more cytotoxic form. The purpose of this study is to determine if this system has a good potential as a targeted therapy for breast cancer.
A fusion of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase and human annexin V was produced in E. coli and purified. Using human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and non-confluent human endothelial cells grown in vitro, the binding strength of the fusion protein and the cytotoxicity of the enzyme prodrug system were determined. Endothelial cells that are not confluent expose phosphatidylserine and therefore mimic the tumor vasculature.
The purified recombinant fusion protein had good enzymatic activity and strong binding to the three cell lines. There was significant cell killing (p<0.001) by the enzyme prodrug treatment for all three cell lines, with greater than 80% cytotoxicity obtained after 6 days of treatment.
These results suggest that this treatment could be useful as a targeted therapy for breast cancer.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76403. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076403 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Externalization of PS is not restricted to apoptosis but has been established in activated platelets, aging erythrocytes, activated endothelium of tumor vasculature, activated macrophages, megakaryocytes, necrosis and autophagy [32,33]. Interestingly, stressed cells have also shown to expose PS on their PM , but not when the stressor is removed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of efficacy of anti-cancer therapy is currently performed by anatomical imaging (e.g., MRI, CT). Structural changes, if present, become apparent 1-2 months after start of therapy. Cancer patients thus bear the risk to receive an ineffective treatment, whilst clinical trials take a long time to prove therapy response. Both patient and pharmaceutical industry could therefore profit from an early assessment of efficacy of therapy. Diagnostic methods providing information on a functional level, rather than a structural, could present the solution. Recent technological advances in molecular imaging enable in vivo imaging of biological processes. Since most anti-cancer therapies combat tumors by inducing apoptosis, imaging of apoptosis could offer an early assessment of efficacy of therapy. This review focuses on principles of and clinical experience with molecular imaging of apoptosis using Annexin A5, a widely accepted marker for apoptosis detection in vitro and in vivo in animal models. 99mTc-HYNIC-Annexin A5 in combination with SPECT has been probed in clinical studies to assess efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy within 1-4 days after start of therapy. Annexin A5-based functional imaging of apoptosis shows promise to offer a personalized medicine approach, now primarily used in genome-based medicine, applicable to all cancer patients.
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