Phosphatidylserine is a marker of tumor vasculature and a potential target for cancer imaging and therapy
ABSTRACT (1) To determine whether exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) occurs on vascular endothelium in solid tumors in mice. (2) To determine whether PS exposure can be induced on viable endothelial cells in tissue culture by conditions present in the tumor microenvironment.
Externalized PS in vivo was detected by injecting mice with a monoclonal anti-PS antibody and examining frozen sections of tumors and normal tissues for anti-PS antibody bound to vascular endothelium. Apoptotic cells were identified by anti-active caspase-3 antibody or by TUNEL assay. PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells was determined by 125I-annexin V binding.
Anti-PS antibody bound specifically to vascular endothelium in six tumor models. The percentage of PS-positive vessels ranged from 4% to 40% in different tumor types. Vascular endothelium in normal organs was unstained. Very few tumor vessels expressed apoptotic markers. Hypoxia/reoxygenation, acidity, inflammatory cytokines, thrombin, or hydrogen peroxide induced PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells without causing loss of viability.
Vascular endothelial cells in tumors, but not in normal tissues, externalize PS. PS exposure might be induced by tumor-associated oxidative stress and activating cytokines. PS is an abundant and accessible marker of tumor vasculature and could be used for tumor imaging and therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma are malignant human cancers of the skin with an annual mortality that exceeds 10,000 cases every year in the USA alone. In this study, the lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC) and the phos-pholipid dioloylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were assembled into cancer-selective nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS) and suc-cessfully tested using several in vitro and in vivo skin cancer models. Using MTT assay that measures the percentage of cell death, SapC-DOPS cytotoxic effect on three skin tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma, SK-MEL-28, and MeWo) was compared to two normal nontumorigenic skin cells lines, normal immortalized keratinocyte (NIK) and human fibroblast cell (HFC). We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed the skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death whereas untransformed skin cancer cells remained unaffected. Using subcutaneous skin tumor xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS by subcutaneous injection showed a 79.4% by volume tumor reduced compared to the control after 4 days of treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles killed skin cancer cells by induc-ing apoptotic cell death compared to the control as revealed by TUNEL staining of xenograft tumor sections.Journal of Cancer Therapy 08/2012; 3(4). DOI:10.4236/jct.2012.34041
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ABSTRACT: One of the hallmarks of stroke pathophysiology is the widespread death of many different types of brain cells. As our understanding of the complex disease that is stroke has grown, it is now generally accepted that various different mechanisms can result in cell damage and eventual death. A plethora of techniques is available to identify various pathological features of cell death in stroke; each has its own drawbacks and pitfalls, and most are unable to distinguish between different types of cell death, which partially explains the widespread misuse of many terms. The purpose of this review is to summarize the standard histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques used to identify various pathological features of stroke. We then discuss how these methods should be properly interpreted on the basis of what they are showing, as well as advantages and disadvantages that require consideration. As there is much interest in the visualization of stroke using noninvasive imaging strategies, we also specifically discuss how these techniques can be interpreted within the context of cell death.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 11/2011; 32(2):213-31. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.150 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as grade IV astrocytoma, GBMs are extremely aggressive, almost always recur, and despite our best efforts, remain incurable. This review describes the traditional treatment approaches that led to moderate successes in GBM patients, discusses standard imaging modalities, and presents data supporting the use of SapC-DOPS, a novel proteoliposomal formulation with tumoricidal activity, as a promising diagnostic imaging tool and an innovative anti-cancer agent against GBM.01/2015; 2(2):102-10.