Association between cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus and HIV-1

International AIDS Research and Training Program, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Box 359909, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 01/2003; 16(18):2425-30. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-200212060-00007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the association between the cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HIV-1.
A cross-sectional study on 200 women seropositive for both HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted in a family planning clinic at the Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya.
Quantities of HSV DNA (types 1 and 2) and HIV-1 RNA as well as the presence or absence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in cervical secretions were determined and compared.
There was a significant correlation between the quantities of HSV DNA and HIV-1 RNA in the cervical secretions of HSV-shedding women (Pearson's r = 0.24, P = 0.05). A 10-fold increase in the quantity of cervical HSV DNA was associated with 1.35-fold higher cervical HIV-1-RNA levels (95% CI 1.00-1.81; P = 0.05), and with 1.36-fold greater odds of detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA (95% CI 1.05-1.75; P = 0.02).
Higher levels of cervical HSV were associated with higher levels of expressed HIV-1 and with the more frequent detection of HIV-1-infected cells in cervical secretions. Prospective studies are needed to explore further the association between non-ulcerative cervical HSV reactivation and HIV-1 shedding. Such a relationship may have important implications for interventions designed to slow the spread of HIV-1.

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    • "Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly adapted human pathogens with rapid lytic cycle and ability to invade sensory neurons.The primary agents of recurrent facial and genital herpes lesions are HSV-1 and HSV-2 while genital herpes (GH) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world [1] [2] [3]. Moreover, GH is the main factor of increasing three to five times the risk of HIV transmission, stimulating HIV replication, and finally leading to the progression of AIDS [4] [5] [6]. Acyclovir (ACV) is a prodrug and it is the first nucleoside-based therapeutic effective for the treatment D. Kovala-Demertzi, P. Genova, P. Souza, and M. A. Demertzis dedicate this work to the late Professor T. Varadinova for her contribution to virology. "
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    Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications 02/2007; 2007:56165. DOI:10.1155/2007/56165 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    • "HSV promotes HIV replication in human T cells (Mosca et al., 1987) and in macrophages by inducing NF-κB activity (Moriuchi et al., 2000). Increased HIV viral shedding can also be found in subclinical non-ulcerative HSV (Mbopi Keou et al., 1999; McClelland et al., 2002) suggesting that HIV transmissibility may be enhanced without direct mucosal disruption and herpetic ulceration. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of acyclovir in reducing HIV transmission. "
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