Spectral karyotyping identifies recurrent complex rearrangements of chromosomes 8, 17, and 20 in osteosarcomas
ABSTRACT Conventional cytogenetic studies have shown that osteosarcomas (OSs) are often highly aneuploid, with a large number of both structural and numerical chromosomal alterations. To investigate the complexity of OS karyotypes in detail, we applied spectral karyotyping (SKY) to a series of 14 primary OS tumors and four established OS cell lines. A total of 531 rearrangements were identified by SKY, of which 300 breakpoints could be assigned to a specific chromosome band. There was an average of 38.5 breakpoints identified by SKY per primary tumor. Chromosome 20 was involved in a disproportionately high number of structural rearrangements, with 38 different aberrations being detected. Chromosomal rearrangements between chromosomes 20 and 8 were evident in four tumors. FISH analysis using a 20q13 subtelomeric probe identified frequent involvement of 20q in complex structural rearrangements of OS cell lines. Characterization of the structural aberrations of chromosomes 8 and 17 by use of SKY demonstrated frequent duplication or partial gains of chromosome bands 8q23-24 and 17p11-13. Other chromosomes frequently involved in structural alteration were chromosomes 1 (47 rearrangements) and 6 (38 rearrangements). Centromeric rearrangements often involving chromosomes 1, 6, 13, 14, 17, and 20 were present. Four of the 14 primary OS tumors were characterized by nonclonal changes that included both structural and numerical alterations. In summary, OS tumors have a very high frequency of structural and numerical alterations, compounded by gross changes in ploidy. This intrinsic karyotype instability leads to a diversity of rearrangements and the acquisition of composite chromosomal rearrangements, with the highest frequency of alteration leading to gain of 8q23-24 and 17p11-13 and rearrangement of 20q. These findings suggest that specific sequences mapping to these chromosomal regions will likely have a role in the development and progression of OS.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Aurora kinases are key regulators of cell cycle and represent new promising therapeutic targets in several human tumours.Methods:Biological relevance of Aurora kinase-A and -B was assessed on osteosarcoma clinical samples and by silencing these genes with specific siRNA in three human osteosarcoma cell lines. In vitro efficacy of two Aurora kinases-targeting drugs (VX-680 and ZM447439) was evaluated on a panel of four drug-sensitive and six drug-resistant human osteosarcoma cell lines.Results:Human osteosarcoma cell lines proved to be highly sensitive to both drugs. A decreased drug sensitivity was observed in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines, most probably related to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression. Both drugs variably induced hyperploidy and apoptosis in the majority of cell lines. VX-680 also reduced in vitro cell motility and soft-agar cloning efficiency. Drug association experiments showed that VX-680 positively interacts with all conventional drugs used in osteosarcoma chemotherapy, overcoming the cross-resistance observed in the single-drug treatments.Conclusion:Aurora kinase-A and -B represent new candidate therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. In vitro analysis of the Aurora kinases inhibitors VX-680 and ZM447439 indicated in VX-680 a new promising drug of potential clinical usefulness in association with conventional osteosarcoma chemotherapeutic agents.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 15 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.643 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 10/2013; 109(10). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.643
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ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most commonly diagnosed malignant bone tumor in humans and dogs, characterized in both species by extremely complex karyotypes exhibiting high frequencies of genomic imbalance. Evaluation of genomic signatures in human OS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has assisted in uncovering genetic mechanisms that result in disease phenotype. Previous low-resolution (10-20 Mb) aCGH analysis of canine OS identified a wide range of recurrent DNA copy number aberrations, indicating extensive genomic instability. In this study, we profiled 123 canine OS tumors by 1 Mb-resolution aCGH to generate a dataset for direct comparison with current data for human OS, concluding that several high frequency aberrations in canine and human OS are orthologous. To ensure complete coverage of gene annotation, we identified the human refseq genes that map to these orthologous aberrant dog regions and found several candidate genes warranting evaluation for OS involvement. Specifically, subsequenct FISH and qRT-PCR analysis of RUNX2, TUSC3, and PTEN indicated that expression levels correlated with genomic copy number status, showcasing RUNX2 as an OS associated gene and TUSC3 as a possible tumor suppressor candidate. Together these data demonstrate the ability of genomic comparative oncology to identify genetic abberations which may be important for OS progression. Large scale screening of genomic imbalance in canine OS further validates the use of the dog as a suitable model for human cancers, supporting the idea that dysregulation discovered in canine cancers will provide an avenue for complementary study in human counterparts.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 11/2011; 50(11):859-74. DOI:10.1002/gcc.20908
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ABSTRACT: Supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) may or may not be associated with an abnormal phenotype, depending on the presence of euchromatin, on their chromosomal origin and whether they are inherited. Over 80% of sSMCs are derived from acrocentric chromosomes and half of them include the short arm of chromosome 15. Generally, they appear as bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosomes, most of them are symmetric. These chromosomes are normally originated de novo and are associated with mild to severe intellectual disability but not with physical abnormalities. We report on a patient with an SMC studied using classical and molecular cytogenetic procedures (G and C banding, NOR staining, painting and centromeric fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), BAC-FISH, and SKY). The MLPA technique and DNA polymorphic markers were used in order to identify its parental origin. The marker chromosome, monosatellited and monocentric, was found to be derived from a maternal chromosome 15 and was defined as 15pter-q21.2. This is the report of the largest de novo monosatellited 15q marker chromosome ever published presenting detailed cytogenetic and clinical data. It was associated with a phenotype including cardiac defect, absence of septum pellucidum, and dysplasia of the corpus callosum.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2010; 152A(3):753-8. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33308