Disease-associated prion protein in vessel walls.
ABSTRACT Human prion diseases like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are infectious, inherited, or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the host-encoded prion protein. This affects nervous tissue in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and, additionally, in lymphoid tissue in bovine spongiform encephalopathy-linked variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Experimental studies have established the involvement of cells of the lymphoid and peripheral nervous system in the transport of prions to their target central nervous system tissue. To evaluate the role of vessel wall-associated mobile cells, we obtained formalin-fixed tissue blocks from various brain regions and/or basal arteries from sporadic, variant and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and unselected control cases. We demonstrate disease-associated prion protein deposits in intracranial vessel walls, in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by performing immunohistochemical staining and paraffin-embedded tissue blotting. Using double immunofluorescence, these deposits co-localize with HLA-DR and S-100 immunoreactive cells in the intima, which are components of the vascular-associated dendritic cell network, as well as with HLA-DR and CD-68 immunopositive macrophages of the intima and media. We conclude that mobile cells in vessel walls like dendritic and monocyte/macrophage lineage cells may be involved in spread of disease-associated prion protein and possibly also of infectivity.
Article: Processing of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy-specific prion protein by dendritic cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are suspected to be involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). We detected the disease-specific, protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(bse)) in splenic DC purified by magnetic cell sorting 45 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of BSE prions in immunocompetent mice. We showed that bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) from wild-type or PrP-null mice acquired both PrP(bse) and prion infectivity within 2 h of in vitro culture with a BSE inoculum. BMDC cleared PrP(bse) within 2 to 3 days of culture, while BMDC infectivity was only 10-fold diminished between days 1 and 6 of culture, suggesting that the infectious unit in BMDC is not removed at the same rate as PrP(bse) is removed from these cells. Bone marrow-derived plasmacytoid DC and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) also acquired and degraded PrP(bse) when incubated with a BSE inoculum, with kinetics very similar to those of BMDC. PrP(bse) capture is probably specific to antigen-presenting cells since no uptake of PrP(bse) was observed when splenic B or T lymphocytes were incubated with a BSE inoculum in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide activation of BMDC or BMM prior to BSE infection resulted in an accelerated breakdown of PrP(bse). Injected by the intraperitoneal route, BMDC were not infectious for alymphoid recombination-activated gene 2(0)/common cytokine gamma chain-deficient mice, suggesting that these cells are not capable of directly propagating BSE infectivity to nerve endings.Journal of Virology 06/2006; 80(10):4656-63. · 5.40 Impact Factor