Stability of retrospective reports in depression: traumatic events, past depressive episodes, and parental psychopathology.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Jordan Hall, Bldg. 420, Stanford, CA 94305-2130, USA.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.72). 10/2002; 43(3):307-16. DOI: 10.2307/3090206
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Research findings based on the retrospective reports of depressed individuals have long been held suspect because of possible negative reporting biases associated with depression. In the present study we assess the stability of retrospective reports of past traumatic events, past depressive episodes, parental depression, and parental substance abuse in a sample of 234 adults whose depression status changed over two assessments conducted one year apart. Depression status was found to affect reporting of number of past depressive episodes and past traumatic events, but not reporting of parental psychopathology. Implications of these findings are discussed for research that relies on the retrospective self-reports of depressed participants.


Available from: Ian H Gotlib, Jun 11, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To explore potential risk factors and early manifestations of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) by examining retrospective reports of social functioning and adverse childhood experiences. Early social functioning and pathological childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire-Revised. The responses of 146 adults diagnosed with primary AVPD were compared with a group of 371 patients with other personality disorders as a primary diagnosis and a group of 83 patients with current major depression disorder and no personality disorders, using chi2 analyses. Diagnoses were based on semistructured interviews by trained reliable clinicians. Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement in hobbies during adolescence, and less adolescent popularity than the depressed comparison group and the other personality disorder group. Reported rates of physical and emotional abuse were higher than the depressed group, but this result was influenced by comorbid diagnoses. These results suggest that early manifestations of AVPD are present in childhood but that various forms of abuse are not specific to the disorder.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 10/2003; 42(9):1122-30. DOI:10.1097/01.CHI.0000070250.24125.5F · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Five-Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI) is a 120-item dimensional measure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that was developed from the description of BPD from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model. The FFBI includes 12 subscales and 1 total score. The current study created a short form of the FFBI (FFBI-SF) using item response theory analyses based on an undergraduate student sample that completed the FFBI. Based on the results, the final FFBI-SF included 48 items, with 4 items per subscale. The construct validity of the short form was compared with the original FFBI in five additional samples. The FFBI-SF showed strong convergence with other BPD scales and comparable convergent and discriminant validity with the FFM compared with the FFBI. The correlational profiles generated by the total score and subscales were highly convergent. Results of the current study suggest that the FFBI-SF may be an accessible and useful assessment tool of BPD. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Assessment 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1073191115581475 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of early maladaptive schemas in understanding and treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was investigated. The first study examined the role of perceived adverse parenting and early maladaptive schemas in the development of PTSD in Australian and New Zealand Vietnam war veterans (n = 220). Veterans diagnosed with PTSD scored higher on the Young Schema Questionnaire (L3) and had higher scores on the Measure of Parental Style than veterans not diagnosed with PTSD. The results suggest that early maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. The second study measured at baseline, termination and 3 months the early maladaptive schemas, PTSD, anxiety and depression of war veterans (n = 54) participating in a PTSD group treatment programme that included schema-focused therapy. Scores on the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and 17 schemas decreased significantly after treatment. Change scores for the schema treatment were compared with change scores of war veterans (n = 127) who had completed a manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy programme without schema-focused therapy. Pre-treatment measures were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, PTSD and anxiety improved more significantly for the schema-focused therapy group. Together, these findings support the feasibility of schema-focused therapy to assist veterans with PTSD.
    Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 01/2010; 17(3):165-82. DOI:10.1002/cpp.690 · 2.59 Impact Factor