[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood stream forms (BSF) of Trypanosoma brucei brucei GUT at 3.1 were propagated in vitro in the absence of feeder layer cells at 37 C, using a modified Iscove's medium (HMI-18). The medium was supplemented with 0.05 mM bathocuproine sulfonate, 1.5 mM L-cysteine, 1 mM hypoxanthine, 0.2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 1 mM sodium pyruvate. 0.16 mM thymidine, and 20% (v/v) Serum Plus (SP) (Hazleton Biologics, Lenexa, Kansas). The latter contained a low level of serum proteins (13 micrograms/ml). Each primary culture was initiated by placing 3.5-4 x 10(6) BSFs isolated from infected mice in a flask containing 5 ml of the medium (HMI-9) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10% SP. The cultures were maintained by replacing the medium every 24 hr for 5-7 days. During this period, many BSFs died. However, from day 4 onward, long slender BSFs increased in number. On days 5-7, trypanosome suspensions were pooled and cell debris was removed by means of diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DE52) column chromatography. Blood stream forms then were collected by centrifugation, resuspended in fresh medium at 7-9 x 10(5)/ml, and transferred to new flasks. Subcultures were maintained by readjusting the BSF density to 7-9 x 10(5)/ml every 24 hr. Concentrations of FBS were reduced gradually at 5-7-day intervals by alternating the amounts of FBS and SP in HMI-9 with 5% FBS and 15% SP, with 2% FBS and 18% SP, and finally with 20% SP (HMI-18). By this method, 2-3 x 10(6) VSFs/ml were obtained consistently every 24 hr. for more than 80 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of Parasitology 01/1990; 75(6):985-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enzyme that reduces methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)] residues in proteins [peptide Met(O) reductase (MsrA), EC 22.214.171.124; originally identified in Escherichia coli] was purified from bovine liver, and the cDNA encoding this enzyme was cloned and sequenced. The mammalian homologue of E. coli msrA (also called pmsR) cDNA encodes a protein of 255 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 25,846 Da. This protein has 61% identity with the E. coli MsrA throughout a region encompassing a 199-amino acid overlap. The protein has been overexpressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The mammalian recombinant MsrA can use as substrate, proteins containing Met(O) as well as other organic compounds that contain an alkyl sulfoxide group such as N-acetylMet(O), Met(O), and dimethyl sulfoxide. Northern analysis of rat tissue extracts showed that rat msrA mRNA is present in a variety of organs with the highest level found in kidney. This is consistent with the observation that kidney extracts also contained the highest level of enzyme activity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1996; 93(5):2095-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parasitic trypanosomatids comprise causative agents of debilitating or life-threatening tropical diseases. The limited capacity of these parasites to cope with oxidative stress has been discussed as a target area for therapeutic approaches but success has been hampered by a lack of comprehension of their peculiar oxidant defense system depending on the unique redox metabolite trypanothione. Here we report that trypanothione-dependent hydroperoxide metabolism in Crithidia fasciculata is catalysed by two distinct proteins working in concert. One is Cf16, a unique protein which, apart from a WCPPC sequence that resembles the thioredoxin-type WCG(A)PC motif, only shows low similarity to thioredoxin-like proteins of bacteria and invertebrates. The second component is Cf21, which can be classified as a member of the peroxiredoxin family of proteins. The two proteins have been purified to homogeneity and shown to be essential for the trypanothione-dependent removal of hydroperoxides. By means of selective derivatisation of the substrate-reduced proteins the flux of reduction equivalents from trypanothione to Cf16, Cf21 and finally to the hydroperoxide was elucidated. Cf21 proved to be a moderately efficient peroxidase with broad specificity. The rate constants for the reaction of the reduced protein with H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide were 1.0 x 10(5), 1.2 x 10(5), 1.0 x 10(5) and 0.4 x 10(5) M-1S-1, respectively. The apparent rate constant for the regeneration of reduced Cf21 by Cf16 was in the range of 1.5-3.5 x 10(6) M-1S-1. This newly discovered metabolic pathway adds two further candidates to the list of potential targets for trypanocidal drugs.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.