Melatonin reduces cerebral edema formation caused by transient forebrain ischemia in rats.
ABSTRACT Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. Melatonin, a metabolite of tryptophan released from the pineal gland, has been found to be effective against neurotoxicity in vitro. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of melatonin in vivo in reducing ischemia-induced edema using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Melatonin was administered twice (6.0 mg/kg, p.o.): just prior to 1 h MCA occlusion and 1 day after the surgery. T2-weighted multislice spin-echo images were acquired 1 day after the surgery. Increases in T2-weighted signals in ischemic sites of the brain were clearly observed after MCA occlusion. The signal increase was found mainly in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex in saline-treated control rats. In the melatonin-treated group, the total volume of cerebral edema was reduced by 45.3% compared to control group (P < 0.01). The protective effect of melatonin against cerebral edema was more clearly observed in the cerebral cortex (reduced by 56.1%, P < 0.01), while the reduction of edema volume in the striatum was weak (reduced by 23.0%). The present MRI study clearly demonstrated that melatonin is effective in reducing edema formation in ischemic animals in vivo, especially in the cerebral cortex. Melatonin may be highly useful in preventing cortical dysfunctions such as motor, sensory, memory, and psychological impairments.
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ABSTRACT: The role of glial cells in neuronal death has become a major research interest. Glial cell activation has been demonstrated to accompany cerebral ischemia. However, there is disagreement whether such gliosis is a cell death or a neuroprotective response. In the present study, we examined alterations in glial cell responses to the reported neuroprotective action of the free radical scavenger, melatonin, against cerebral ischemia. Adult male Wistar rats were given oral injections of either melatonin (26 micromol/rat) or saline just prior to 1 h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), then once daily for 11 or 19 consecutive days. At 11 and 19 days after reperfusion of the MCA, randomly selected animals were killed and their brains removed for immunohistochemical assays. Melatonin significantly enhanced survival of glial cells (as revealed by glial cell specific markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein and aquaporin-4 immunostaining) at both time periods postischemia, and the preservation of these glial cells in the ischemic penumbra corresponded with a markedly reduced area of infarction (detected by immunoglobulin G and hematoxylin-eosin staining), as well as increased neuronal survival. The ischemia-induced locomotor deficits were partially ameliorated in melatonin-treated animals. In vitro replications of ischemia by serum deprivation or by exposure to free radical-producing toxins (sodium nitroprusside and 3-nitropropionic acid) revealed that melatonin (10 microg/ml or 100 microM) treatment of pure astrocytic cultures significantly reduced astrocytic cell death. These results suggest a potential strategy directed at enhancing glial cell survival as an alternative protective approach against ischemic damage.The FASEB Journal 08/2000; 14(10):1307-17. · 5.70 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Endocrinology 05/1996; 134(4):412-20. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Large infarcts develop in pinealectomized rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, which was attributed to loss of antioxidant action of melatonin. However, melatonin also has vascular actions, and pinealectomy may induce hypertension. The authors investigated (1) whether hemodynamic factors contribute to infarct development in pinealectomized rats, (2) whether melatonin administration can reverse the unfavorable effect of pinealectomy on infarct formation, and (3) whether melatonin can reduce the infarct volume in nonpinealectomized rats subjected to focal transient ischemia (2 hours middle cerebral artery occlusion, 22 hours reperfusion). Rats were pinealectomized 3 months before ischemia to eliminate any possible action of pinealectomy-induced hypertension on stroke. Blood pressure and regional CBF values during ischemia and reperfusion were not significantly different between pinealectomized and sham-operated rats, suggesting that pinealectomy-induced increase in infarct was not related to hemodynamic factors. The infarct volume resumed to the level of sham-operated rats on melatonin administration. Injection of melatonin (4 mg/kg) before both ischemia and reperfusion reduced infarct volume by 40% and significantly improved neurologic deficit scores in pinealectomized as well as sham-operated rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. These data suggest that physiologic melatonin release as well as exogenously given melatonin has a neuroprotective action in focal cerebral ischemia.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 06/1999; 19(5):511-6. · 5.40 Impact Factor