Melatonin reduces cerebral edema formation caused by transient forebrain ischemia in rats.
ABSTRACT Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. Melatonin, a metabolite of tryptophan released from the pineal gland, has been found to be effective against neurotoxicity in vitro. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of melatonin in vivo in reducing ischemia-induced edema using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Melatonin was administered twice (6.0 mg/kg, p.o.): just prior to 1 h MCA occlusion and 1 day after the surgery. T2-weighted multislice spin-echo images were acquired 1 day after the surgery. Increases in T2-weighted signals in ischemic sites of the brain were clearly observed after MCA occlusion. The signal increase was found mainly in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex in saline-treated control rats. In the melatonin-treated group, the total volume of cerebral edema was reduced by 45.3% compared to control group (P < 0.01). The protective effect of melatonin against cerebral edema was more clearly observed in the cerebral cortex (reduced by 56.1%, P < 0.01), while the reduction of edema volume in the striatum was weak (reduced by 23.0%). The present MRI study clearly demonstrated that melatonin is effective in reducing edema formation in ischemic animals in vivo, especially in the cerebral cortex. Melatonin may be highly useful in preventing cortical dysfunctions such as motor, sensory, memory, and psychological impairments.
- SourceAvailable from: Pallab Bhattacharya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim Aquaporin-4(AQP4) expression in brain with relation to edema formation following focal cerebral ischemia was investigated. Studies have shown that brain edema is one of the significant factors in worsening stroke outcomes. While many mechanisms may aggravate brain injury, one such potential system may involve AQP4 up regulation in stroke patients that could result in increased edema formation. Post administration of melatonin following ischemic stroke reduces AQP4 mediated brain edema and confer neuroprotection. Materials and Methods An in-silico approach was undertaken to confirm effective melatonin-AQP4 binding. Rats were treated with 5mg/kg, i.p. melatonin OR placebo at 30 min prior, 60 min post and 120 min post 60 minutes of MCAO followed by 24 hour reperfusion. Rats were evaluated for battery of neurological and motor function tests just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, biochemical analysis, apoptosis study and western blot experiments. Key findings Melatonin at sixty minutes post ischemia rendered neuroprotection as evident by reduction in cerebral infarct volume, improvement in motor and neurological deficit and reduction in brain edema. Furthermore, ischemia induced surge in levels of nitrite and MDA were also found to be significantly reduced in ischemic brain regions in treated animals. Melatonin potentiated intrinsic antioxidant status, inhibited acid mediated rise in intracellular calcium levels, decreased apoptotic cell death and also markedly inhibited protein kinase C influenced AQP4 expression in the cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum. Significance Melatonin confer neuroprotection by Protein Kinase C mediated AQP4 inhibition in ischemic stroke.Life sciences 04/2014; 100(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.01.085 · 2.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intravenous administration of arginine was shown to be protective against cerebral ischemic insults via nitric oxide production and possibly via additional mechanisms. The present study aimed at evaluating the neuroprotective effects of oral administration of lysine (a basic amino acid), arginine, and their combination on ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction) and hemispheric brain swelling induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats. Magnetic resonance imaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed 2 days after ischemia induction. In control animals, the major edematous areas were observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The volumes associated with cortical edema were significantly reduced by lysine (2.0 g/kg), arginine (0.6 g/kg), or their combined administration (0.6 g/kg each). Protective effects of these amino acids on infarction were comparable to the inhibitory effects on edema formation. Interestingly, these amino acids, even at low dose (0.6 g/kg), were effective to reduce hemispheric brain swelling. Additionally, the effects of in vivo microiontophoretic (juxtaneuronal) applications of these amino acids on glutamate-evoked neuronal activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus were investigated in awake rats. Glutamate-induced neuronal activity was robustly inhibited by microiontophoretic applications of lysine or arginine onto neuronal membranes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of oral ingestion of lysine and arginine against ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction), especially in the cerebral cortex, and suggest that suppression of glutamate-induced neuronal activity might be the primary mechanism associated with these neuroprotective effects.Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 06/2010; 4:18. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2010.00018
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Free radicals derived from molecular oxygen have been reported to be responsible for changes in motility and mucosal damage observed in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Melatonin has been considered as an antioxidant that prevents injuries resulted from I/R in various tissues. The present study was designed to determine the effect of melatonin on the contractile responses of acetylcholine (Ach) and KCl, on malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and to assess histopathological changes in the smooth muscle of terminal ileum subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. The intestinal ischemia-reperfusion was induced by occlusion of superior mesenteric artery of rat for 30 min, followed by a period of reperfusion for 3 h. Melatonin at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg was administered via the tail vein in 5 min prior to reperfusion. Following reperfusion, segments of terminal ileum were rapidly taken and transferred into isolated organ bath and responses to Ach and KCl were recorded. Samples of terminal ileum were also taken for measuring the MDA and GSH levels. EC50 values of these contracting substances were seriously reduced in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared to that of the sham-operated control group. The decreased contraction response to Ach and KCl was significantly ameliorated by a dosage of 50 mg/kg of melatonin, while not by a dosage of 10 mg/kg. Similar pattern of the effect was observed in the tissue levels of MDA and GSH as well as in histological improvement. Melatonin appeared to be restoring the amounts of tissue MDA and GSH back to about control levels. These results suggest that the high dose of melatonin not only physiologically but also biochemically and morphologically could be useful to normalize contractility injured by oxidative stress in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.Life Sciences 03/2005; 76(14):1575-88. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2004.08.031 · 2.30 Impact Factor