Melatonin reduces cerebral edema formation caused by transient forebrain ischemia in rats.
ABSTRACT Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. Melatonin, a metabolite of tryptophan released from the pineal gland, has been found to be effective against neurotoxicity in vitro. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of melatonin in vivo in reducing ischemia-induced edema using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Melatonin was administered twice (6.0 mg/kg, p.o.): just prior to 1 h MCA occlusion and 1 day after the surgery. T2-weighted multislice spin-echo images were acquired 1 day after the surgery. Increases in T2-weighted signals in ischemic sites of the brain were clearly observed after MCA occlusion. The signal increase was found mainly in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex in saline-treated control rats. In the melatonin-treated group, the total volume of cerebral edema was reduced by 45.3% compared to control group (P < 0.01). The protective effect of melatonin against cerebral edema was more clearly observed in the cerebral cortex (reduced by 56.1%, P < 0.01), while the reduction of edema volume in the striatum was weak (reduced by 23.0%). The present MRI study clearly demonstrated that melatonin is effective in reducing edema formation in ischemic animals in vivo, especially in the cerebral cortex. Melatonin may be highly useful in preventing cortical dysfunctions such as motor, sensory, memory, and psychological impairments.
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ABSTRACT: Aim Aquaporin-4(AQP4) expression in brain with relation to edema formation following focal cerebral ischemia was investigated. Studies have shown that brain edema is one of the significant factors in worsening stroke outcomes. While many mechanisms may aggravate brain injury, one such potential system may involve AQP4 up regulation in stroke patients that could result in increased edema formation. Post administration of melatonin following ischemic stroke reduces AQP4 mediated brain edema and confer neuroprotection. Materials and Methods An in-silico approach was undertaken to confirm effective melatonin-AQP4 binding. Rats were treated with 5mg/kg, i.p. melatonin OR placebo at 30 min prior, 60 min post and 120 min post 60 minutes of MCAO followed by 24 hour reperfusion. Rats were evaluated for battery of neurological and motor function tests just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, biochemical analysis, apoptosis study and western blot experiments. Key findings Melatonin at sixty minutes post ischemia rendered neuroprotection as evident by reduction in cerebral infarct volume, improvement in motor and neurological deficit and reduction in brain edema. Furthermore, ischemia induced surge in levels of nitrite and MDA were also found to be significantly reduced in ischemic brain regions in treated animals. Melatonin potentiated intrinsic antioxidant status, inhibited acid mediated rise in intracellular calcium levels, decreased apoptotic cell death and also markedly inhibited protein kinase C influenced AQP4 expression in the cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum. Significance Melatonin confer neuroprotection by Protein Kinase C mediated AQP4 inhibition in ischemic stroke.Life sciences 01/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of main causes of brain edema and intracranial pressure in (ICP). In the clinic it is essential to limit the development of ICP after TBI. In the present study, the effects of melatonin on these parameters at different time points and alterations of oxidant factors as one of the probable involved mechanisms have been evaluated. METHODS: Albino N-Mary rats were divided into five groups of sham, TBI, TBI + vehicle, TBI + Mel5 and TBI + Mel20. Brain injury was induced by Marmarou method. Melatonin was injected i.p. at 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after brain trauma. Brain water and Evans blue dye contents as well as oxidant factors were measured 72 h after TBI. ICP and neurological scores were determined at -1, 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post-TBI. RESULTS: Brain water and Evans blue dye contents in melatonin-treated groups decreased as compared to the TBI + vehicle group (p <0.001). Veterinary coma scale (VCS) at 24, 48 and 72 h after TBI showed a significant increase in melatonin groups (TBI + Mel5: p <0.01and TBI + Mel20: p <0.001) in comparison to the TBI + vehicle group. ICP at 24, 48 and 72 h after TBI decreased in melatonin groups as compared to the TBI + vehicle group (p <0.001). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant increase, whereas malondialdehyde level in these groups was significantly lower in melatonin groups in comparison to the TBI + vehicle group (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Melatonin decreases brain edema, BBB permeability and ICP, but increase VCS after TBI. These effects are probably due to inhibition of oxidative stress.Archives of medical research 04/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Melatonin (MLT) is a pleiotropic neurohormone controlling many physiological processes and whose dysfunction may contribute to several different diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, circadian and mood disorders, insomnia, type 2 diabetes and pain. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland during the night and acts through 2 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), MT1 (MEL1a) and MT2 (MEL1b). Although a bulk of research has examined the physiopathological effects of MLT, few studies have investigated the selective role played by MT1 and MT2 receptors. Here we have reviewed current knowledge about the implications of MT2 receptors in brain functions. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and articles reference lists for studies on MT2 receptor ligands in sleep, anxiety, neuropsychiatric diseases and psychopharmacology, including genetic studies on the MTNR1B gene, which encodes the melatonin MT2 receptor. These studies demonstrate that MT2 receptors are involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer disease and pain and that selective MT2 receptor agonists show hypnotic and anxiolytic properties. Studies examining the role of MT2 receptors in psychopharmacology are still limited. The development of novel selective MT2 receptor ligands, together with further preclinical in vivo studies, may clarify the role of this receptor in brain function and psychopharmacology. The superfamily of GPCRs has proven to be among the most successful drug targets and, consequently, MT2 receptors have great potential for pioneer drug discovery in the treatment of mental diseases for which limited therapeutic targets are currently available.Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 08/2013; 38(5):130009. · 6.24 Impact Factor