Sonic hedgehog regulates adult neural progenitor proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Neural stem cells exist in the developing and adult nervous systems of all mammals, but the basic mechanisms that control their behavior are not yet well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a factor vital for neural development, in regulating adult hippocampal neural stem cells. We found high expression of the Shh receptor Patched in both the adult rat hippocampus and neural progenitor cells isolated from this region. In addition, Shh elicited a strong, dose-dependent proliferative response in progenitors in vitro. Furthermore, adeno-associated viral vector delivery of shh cDNA to the hippocampus elicited a 3.3-fold increase in cell proliferation. Finally, the pharmacological inhibitor of Shh signaling cyclopamine reduced hippocampal neural progenitor proliferation in vivo. This work identifies Shh as a regulator of adult hippocampal neural stem cells.
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ABSTRACT: The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of choices for materials, the feasibility of producing structures with varied physical and chemical properties, and their large surface-to-volume ratios. Thus, electrospun fiber-mediated gene delivery exhibits a great capacity to modulate the spatial and temporal release kinetics of gene vectors and enhance gene delivery efficiency. This review discusses the powerful characteristics of electrospun nanofibers, which can function as spatial interfaces capable of promoting controlled and efficient gene delivery.Journal of Biological Engineering 12/2014; 8:30. DOI:10.1186/1754-1611-8-30
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ABSTRACT: Newborn granule neurons generated from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult hippocampus play a key role in spatial learning and pattern separation. However, the molecular mechanisms that control activation of their neurogenic program remain poorly understood. Here, we report a novel function for the pluripotency factor sex-determining region Y (SRY)-related HMG box 2 (SOX2) in regulating the epigenetic landscape of poised genes activated at the onset of neuronal differentiation. We found that SOX2 binds to bivalently marked promoters of poised proneural genes [neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1)] and a subset of neurogenic genes [e.g., SRY-box 21 (Sox21), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (Gadd45b)] where it functions to maintain the bivalent chromatin state by preventing excessive polycomb repressive complex 2 activity. Conditional ablation of SOX2 in adult hippocampal NPCs impaired the activation of proneural and neurogenic genes, resulting in increased neuroblast death and functionally aberrant newborn neurons. We propose that SOX2 sets a permissive epigenetic state in NPCs, thus enabling proper activation of the neuronal differentiation program under neurogenic cue.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2015; 112(15). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1421480112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
Neuro-immune interaction in the adult central nervous system, 01/2013: chapter 1: pages 1-22;