Lead phytoextraction from contaminated soil with high-biomass plant species.
ABSTRACT In this study, cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt cv. Xinza No 1], mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata cv. VC-3762], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Altas 66) were grown in Pb-contaminated soils. Application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3.0 mmol of EDTA/kg soil) to the soil significantly increased the concentrations of Pb in the shoots and roots of all the plants. Lead concentrations in the cabbage shoots reached 5010 and 4620 mg/kg dry matter on Days 7 and 14 after EDTA application, respectively. EDTA was the best in solubilizing soil-bound Pb and enhancing Pb accumulation in the cabbage shoots among various chelates (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid [DTPA], hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid [HEDTA], nitrilotriacetic acid [NTA], and citric acid). Results of the sequential chemical extraction of soil samples showed that the Pb concentrations in the carbonate-specifically adsorbed and Fe-Mn oxide phases were significantly decreased after EDTA treatment. The results indicated that EDTA solubilized Pb mainly from these two phases in the soil. The relative efficiency of EDTA enhancing Pb accumulation in shoots (defined as the ratio of shoot Pb concentration to EDTA concentration applied) was highest when 1.5 or 3.0 mmol EDTA/kg soil was used. Application of EDTA in three separate doses was most effective in enhancing the accumulation of Pb in cabbage shoots and decreased mobility of Pb in soil compared with one- and two-dose application methods. This approach could help to minimize the amount of chelate applied in the field and to reduce the potential risk of soluble Pb movement into ground water.
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ABSTRACT: Phytoextraction is a method of phytoremediation using plants to clean up metal-contaminated soils. Recently, various chelating agents were used in this method to increase the bioavailability of metals in soils. Even though phytoextraction is an economic and environmentally friendly method, this cannot be applied in highly metal-contaminated areas because plants will not normally grow in such conditions. This research focuses on identifying chelating agents which are biodegradable and applicable to highly metal-contaminated areas. Copper (Cu) as a target metal and cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), citrate, malate, oxalate, succinate, and ethylenediamine (EDA) as biodegradable chelating agents were selected. Ethylenediamine tetracyclic acid (EDTA) was used as a comparative standard. Plants were grown on agar media containing various chelating agents with Cu to analyze the effect on root growth. Cys, His, and citrate strongly diminished the inhibitory effect of Cu on root growth of plants. The effect of oxalate was weak, and malate and succinate did not show significant effects. EDTA diminished and EDA promoted the inhibitory effects of Cu on root growth. These effects of chelating agents are correlated with Cu uptake into the roots. In conclusion, as biodegradable chelating agents, Cys, His, and citrate are good candidates for highly Cu-contaminated areas, while EDA can be useful in phytoextraction for Cu.Journal of Life Science. 01/2010; 20(1).
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ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) of the fast growing, salinity resistant Eucalyptus camaldulensis tree with timely EDTA application can enhance sediment clean-up while minimizing leaching of metal complexes. 220-L lysimeters containing a sand–metal-polluted sludge mixture. Established saplings were irrigated with tap or desalinized (RO) water with/without 4-times daily addition of EDTA, EDDS and citric acid. In the 2nd season (2008/9) the chelates were added at 2 mM for ≈ 70 summer days. Diagnostic leaves and soil solution compositions were regularly monitored, the latter by applying prescribed leaching at an overall leaching percentage of ≈ 0.4%. While the three chelants solubilized sludge metals in batch extraction, EDDS often being the more efficient chelant, EDTA only was effective in the soil system. Leachate and leaves peak average concentrations in EDTA treatment vs. the control treatments were: Cd: 200 mg L- 1 vs. 1.0 and 67 vs. 21 mg kg- 1; Cu: 90 vs. 1.5 mg L- 1 and 17 vs. 3.0 mg kg- 1; Ni: 60 mg L- 1 vs. 14 and 20 vs. 6.0 mg kg- 1; Pb: > 44 vs. 0.1 mg L- 1 and 9.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg- 1; and Zn: 650 vs. 4.0 mg L- 1 and 200 vs. 70 mg kg- 1, all respectively. Peak average leachate EDTA concentration was > 60 mM, yet acclimating soil microflora gradually degraded most all the EDTA. In incubation study, EDDS and EDTA half-lives in acclimated lysimeter media were 5–11 days and ≥ 27 days, respectively. It suggests that sustainable phytoextraction of heavy metals is feasible under careful CDI with EDTA (yet not with biodegradable chelants) augmentation at low doses. Despite that the eucalypt was highly salinity (and EDTA) resistant, CDI using RO water further reduces soil solution salinity, thus increasing the usefulness of this remediation technique.Science of The Total Environment 09/2014; 493:995-1005. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phytoextraction is a technique which uses plants to clean up metal-contaminated soils. Recently, various chelating agents were introduced into this technique to increase the bioavailability of metals in soils. Even though the technique is an economic and environment-friendly method, this cannot be applied in highly metal-contaminated areas because plants will not normally grow in such conditions. Therefore, this research focuses on identifying chelating agents which are biodegradable and applicable to highly metal-contaminated areas. Alunimum (Al) as a target metal and cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), citrate, malate, oxalate, succinate, and ethylenediamine (EDA) as biodegradable chelating agents were selected. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a comparative standard. Plants were grown on agar media containing various chelating agents with Al to analyze the effect on plant growth. His slightly diminished the inhibitory effect of Al on root growth of plants, whereas, Cys, citrate, malate, oxalate, and succinate did not show significant effects. Both EDTA and EDA strongly diminished the inhibitory effect of Al on root growth. The effect of EDA is correlated with decreased Al uptake into the plants. In conclusion, as a biodegradable chelating agent, EDA is a good candidate for highly Al-contaminated areas.Journal of Life Science. 01/2010; 20(7).