Article

Mutations in COX15 produce a defect in the mitochondrial heme biosynthetic pathway, causing early-onset fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.99). 02/2003; 72(1):101-14. DOI: 10.1086/345489
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deficiencies in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain, are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease in infants. These patients are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and all defects so far identified in this group have been found in genes coding for accessory proteins that play important roles in the assembly of the COX holoenzyme complex. Many patients, however, remain without a molecular diagnosis. We have used a panel of retroviral vectors expressing human COX assembly factors in these patients to identify the molecular basis for the COX deficiency by functional complementation. Here we show that overexpression of COX15, a protein involved in the synthesis of heme A, the heme prosthetic group for COX, can functionally complement the isolated COX deficiency in fibroblasts from a patient with fatal, infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mutation analysis of COX15 in the patient identified a missense mutation (C700T) on one allele, changing a conserved arginine to tryptophan (R217W), and a splice-site mutation in intron 3 on the other allele (C447-3G), resulting in a deletion of exon 4. This splicing error introduces a frameshift and a premature stop codon, resulting in an unstable mRNA and, likely, a null allele. Mitochondrial heme A content was reduced in the patient's heart and fibroblast mitochondria, and levels of heme O were increased in the patient's heart. COX activity and the total amount of fully assembled enzyme were reduced by 50%-70% in patient fibroblasts. Expression of COX15 increased heme A content and rescued COX activity. These results suggest that reduced availability of heme A stalls the assembly of COX. This study establishes COX15 as an additional cause, along with SCO2, of fatal infantile, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with isolated COX deficiency.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
68 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. ATP synthesis by the oxygen-consuming respiratory chain (RC), supplies most organs and tissues with a readily usable energy source, and is already fully functioning before birth. This means that, in theory, RC deficiency can give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age and with any mode of inheritance, due to the twofold genetic origin of RC components (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA). It has long been erroneously believed that RC disorders originate from mutations of mtDNA as, for some time, only mutations or deletions of mtDNA could be identified. However, the number of disease-causing mutations in nuclear genes is now steadily growing. These genes not only encode the various subunits of each complex, but also the ancillary proteins involved in the different stages of holoenzyme biogenesis, including transcription, translation, chaperoning, addition of prosthetic groups and assembly of proteins, as well as the various enzymes involved in mtDNA metabolism.
    Revue Neurologique 05/2014; · 0.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis is orchestrated by hundreds of assembly factors, many of which are yet to be discovered. Using an integrative approach based on clues from evolutionary history, protein localization and human genetics, we have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, C1orf31/COA6, and shown its requirement for respiratory complex IV biogenesis in yeast, zebrafish and human cells. A recent next-generation sequencing study reported potential pathogenic mutations within the evolutionarily conserved Cx9CxnCx10C motif of COA6, implicating it in mitochondrial disease biology. Using yeast coa6Δ cells, we show that conserved residues in the motif, including the residue mutated in a patient with mitochondrial disease, are essential for COA6 function, thus confirming the pathogenicity of the patient mutation. Furthermore, we show that zebrafish embryos with zfcoa6 knockdown display reduced heart rate and cardiac developmental defects, recapitulating the observed pathology in the human mitochondrial disease patient who died of neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The specific requirement of Coa6 for respiratory complex IV biogenesis, its intra-mitochondrial localization, and the presence of the Cx9CxnCx10C motif suggested a role in mitochondrial copper metabolism. In support of this, we show that exogenous copper supplementation completely rescues respiratory and complex IV assembly defects in yeast coa6Δ cells. Taken together, our results establish an evolutionarily conserved role of Coa6 in complex IV assembly and support a causal role of the COA6 mutation in the human mitochondrial disease patient.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2014; · 6.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
10 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014