Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C for superficial bladder cancer: a formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on recurrence and toxicity.
ABSTRACT We compare the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) with mitomycin C on recurrence of stages Ta and T1 bladder carcinoma.
Combined published and unpublished data from comparative studies on BCG versus mitomycin C for superficial bladder carcinoma considering possible confounding factors were analyzed. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% CI were used as primary effect size estimate. Toxicity data were evaluated descriptively.
In 11 eligible clinical trials 1,421 patients were treated with BCG and 1,328 were treated with mitomycin C. Within the overall median followup time of 26 months 38.6% of the patients in the BCG group and 46.4% of those in the mitomycin C group had tumor recurrence. In 7 of 11 studies BCG was significantly superior to mitomycin C, in 3 studies no significant difference was found, while in 1 study mitomycin C was significantly superior to BCG. An overall statistically significant superiority of BCG versus mitomycin C efficacy in reducing tumor recurrence was detected (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.84, p = 0.005). In the subgroup treated with BCG maintenance all 6 individual studies showed a significant superiority of BCG over mitomycin C (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.53, p <0.001). In 4 of the 5 studies with reported data on toxicity BCG associated cystitis was significantly more frequent than in the mitomycin C group (53.8% versus 39.2%). The combined cystitis OR was 1.81 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.23, p <0.001). The OR for cystitis in the BCG maintenance group did not significantly differ from that in the nonmaintenance therapy group.
The results suggest superiority of BCG over mitomycin C for prevention of tumor recurrences in the combined data and particularly in the BCG maintenance treatment subgroup, irrespective of the actual (intermediate or high) tumor risk status. The toxicity with BCG is higher but does not differ between BCG maintenance and nonmaintenance groups.
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ABSTRACT: Intravesical immunotherapy using attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains and intravesical chemotherapy are the modalities most commonly used to treat intermediate- or high-risk patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. BCG has been shown to decrease recurrence rates by up to 67% compared with tumor resection alone, but intensive BCG maintenance regimens are poorly tolerated in a large proportion of patients. Intravesical chemotherapy also decreases the risk of recurrence for these patients, but has diminished efficacy compared with BCG. If BCG dose reduction can be achieved with combined intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, this regimen may improve compliance and thus optimize treatment for these patients by limiting side effects from BCG monotherapy, while at the same time improving oncologic efficacy via the separate anti-tumor mechanisms of these agents. The authors discuss the most recent data regarding combining these agents in an alternating or sequential regimen.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 06/2011; 11(6):949-57. · 2.07 Impact Factor
- Nature Reviews Urology 01/2010; 7(1):8-10. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intravesical instillations of BCG remains the gold standard for intermediate and high risk NMIBC management. Maintenance treatment is recommended, however, the frequency of side effects responsible for the discontinuation of maintenance therapy over four out of five patients before the third year suggest a reduction or even spacing instillations. The objective of the study URO-BCG-4 was the evaluation of a new maintenance schedule by intravesical instillations of BCG combined reduced dose (third dose) and a decrease number of instillations per cycle (two or three). Multicenter study of the French Association Oncologic Committee (12 university hospital centers), randomized, prospective, comparing reference diagram of BCG maintenance therapy one third of usual dose (group I) to a regimen combining third dose and decrease the number of instillations per cycle (two instead of three) (group II). We present the preliminary results at 1year of this Program of Clinical Research (CHU Rouen Promoter 2003-081). The rate of recurrence was respectively 9 and 7% (P=0.678) in groups I and II. The rate of tumor progression are 3 and 2.8% in groups I and II (P=1). Tolerance of intravesical instillations of BCG scored according to the WHO classification (Geneva 1979) was similar in the two groups. The decrease in the BCG dose (third dose) and the changes in the number and rate of instillations did not alter free tumor recurrence survival. The toxicity of intravesical instillations of BCG was identical in both groups. The use of the WHO classification has shown its limitations in the study of side effects of BCG as too complex and often not exhaustive. The rate of increase muscle was comparable in the two groups; however, a larger clinical experience is required.Progrès en Urologie 04/2013; 23(5):336-46. · 0.80 Impact Factor