An open-label study of tenofovir in HIV-1 and Hepatitis B virus co-infected individuals.
ABSTRACT Tenofovir is a novel nucleotide analogue recommended for use in HIV-1 infected treatment-experienced patients. Recent data suggest an effect on Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. We therefore investigated the use of tenofovir in HIV-1 and HBV co-infected individuals.
Twenty HIV-1/HBV co-infected patients with a median of 108 weeks lamivudine experience (range, 0-270 weeks) received tenofovir 245 mg daily in addition to or as part of their combination antiretroviral therapy. Their immunologic parameters and HIV-1 RNA and HBV DNA viral loads were followed over a period of 52 weeks. In addition, their HBV DNA polymerase was sequenced at baseline to measure the frequency of YMDD mutations that are associated with lamivudine resistance.
A significant decrease in HBV DNA viral load (4 x log ) and alanine aminotransferase levels was observed. There were no significant overall differences between the lamivudine-experienced (n = 15) and -naive (n = 5) individuals and tenofovir was well tolerated. Five patients (25%) underwent HBe antigen seroconversion during the study period. Out of the 15 lamivudine-experienced individuals, 10 had YMDD mutations and one had YIDD mutations in HBV DNA.
These results indicate that 52 weeks of tenofovir in addition to antiretroviral therapy is active against HBV, and it appears to overcome lamivudine resistance.
SourceAvailable from: Eleni Aklillu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence, type, severity and predictors of antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver injury (DILI). A total of 1,060 treatment naive patients were prospectively enrolled into four treatment groups: HIV patients receiving efavirenz based HAART alone (Arm-1); TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4≤200 cells/μL, receiving concomitant rifampicin based anti-TB and efavirenz based HAART (Arm-2); TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4>200 cells/μL, receiving anti-TB alone (Arm-3); TB patients taking rifampicin based anti-TB alone (Arm-4). Liver enzyme levels were monitored at baseline, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks during treatment. CD4 and HIV viral load was measured at baseline, 24th and 48th weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model. A total of 159 patients (15%) developed DILI with severity grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 of 53.5%, 32.7%, 11.3% and 2.5% respectively. The incidence of cholestatic, hepatocellular or mixed pattern was 61%, 15% and 24%, respectively. Incidence of DILI was highest in Arm-2 (24.2%)>Arm-3 (10.8%)>Arm-1 (8.8%)>Arm-4 (2.9%). Concomitant anti-TB-HIV therapy increased the risk of DILI by 10-fold than anti-TB alone (p<0.0001). HIV co-infection increased the risk of anti-TB DILI by 4-fold (p = 0.004). HAART associated DILI was 3-fold higher than anti-TB alone, (p = 0.02). HAART was associated with cholestatic and grade 1 DILI whereas anti-TB therapy was associated with hepatocellular and grade ≥ 2. Treatment type, lower CD4, platelet, hemoglobin, higher serum AST and direct bilirubin levels at baseline were significant DILI predictors. There was no effect of DILI on immunologic recovery or virologic suppression rate of HAART. HAART associated DILI is mainly cholestatic and mild whereas hepatocellular or mixed pattern with high severity grade is more common in anti-tuberculosis DILI. TB-HIV co-infection, disease severity and concomitant treatment exacerbates the risk of DILI.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94271. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094271 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients.World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2014; 20(40):14598-14614. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i40.14598 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus of Hepadnaviridae family . Hepatitis B is one of the most important liver infectious inflammatory disorders which is induced by the HBV and causes inflammation in the hepatic tissues, vomiting, jaundice, etc. . According to statistical reports, 5 % of world's population is suffered from chronic (long-term) HBV infection in the worldwide . Chronic HBV infection is usually associated with hepatocellular carcinoma as well as hepatic cirrhosis which can lead to death . It has been reported that chronic HBV infection is associated with chronic hepatic inflammation (which is called chronic hepatitis) and leads to liver cirrhosis during several years after infection Abstract Introduction: The hepatitis B virus infection is responsible for more than one million deaths all over the world. This study design is to compare the efficacy of Lamivudine (LAM), Adefovir Dipivoxil (ADV) or Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) monotherapy in chronically infected hepatitis B patients.