The Feasibility of a Common Stereotactic Space for Children and Adults in fMRI Studies of Development

Department of Neurology, Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 10/2002; 17(1):184-200. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1174
Source: PubMed


The question of whether pediatric and adult neuroimaging data can be analyzed in a common stereotactic space is a critical issue for developmental neuroscience. Two studies were performed to address this question. In Study 1, high-resolution structural MR brain images of 20 children (7-8 years of age) and 20 young adults (18-30 years of age) were transformed to a common space. Overall brain shape was assessed by tracing the outer boundaries of the brains in three orientations, and more local anatomy was assessed by analysis of portions of 10 selected sulci. Small, but consistent, differences in location and variability were observed in specific locations of the sulcal tracings and outer-boundary sections. In Study 2, a computer simulation was used to assess the extent to which the small anatomical differences observed in Study 1 would produce spurious effects in functional imaging data. Results indicate that, assuming a functional resolution of 5 mm in images averaged across subjects, anatomical differences in either variability or location between children and adults of the magnitude obperved in Study 1 would not negatively affect functional image comparisons. We conclude that atlas-transformed brain morphology is relatively consistent between 7- and 8-year-old children and adults at a resolution appropriate to current functional imaging and that the small anatomical differences present do not limit the usefulness of comparing child and adult functional images within a common stereotactic space.

Download full-text


Available from: Steve E Petersen,
  • Source
    • "most commonly used also for analyzing fMRI data of pediatric populations (e.g., Burgund et al., 2002; Ghosh et al., 2010; Peters et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). Linear and non-linear normalization parameters were then applied to the functional images. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.
    Clinical neuroimaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.08.015 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "(iii) Co-registration of the functional and anatomical images; (iv) normalization of the T1 image to the MNI305 template image (Collins et al., 1994). This template is well defined in respect to most commonly used brain atlas tools, and it was found to be compatible for analyzing fMRI data of pediatric populations in the age range tested here (e.g., Burgund et al., 2002; Ghosh et al., 2010; Peters et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). Linear and non-linear normalization parameters were then applied to the functional images. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 06/2015; 5. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.06.002 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "FreeSurfer processing includes motion correction of a volumetric T1-weighted image, removal of nonbrain tissue using a hybrid watershed/surface deformation procedure (Ségonne et al., 2004); automated Talairach transformation , previously validated in pediatric populations (Burgund et al., 2002); and segmentation of the subcortical white matter, deep gray matter volumetric structures , and cortical gray matter using gyral and sulcal landmarks. FreeSurfer morphometric procedures have demonstrated good test–retest reliability across scanner manufacturers and field strengths (Han et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Working memory develops slowly: even by age 8, children are able to maintain only half the number of items that adults can remember. Neural substrates that support performance on working memory tasks also have a slow developmental trajectory and typically activate to a lesser extent in children, relative to adults. Little is known about why younger participants elicit less neural activation: This may be due to maturational differences, differences in behavioral performance, or both. Here we investigate the neural correlates of working memory capacity in children (ages 5-8) and adults using a visual working memory task with parametrically increasing loads (from one to four items) using fMRI. This task allowed us to estimate working memory capacity limit for each group. We found that both age groups increased the activation of frontoparietal networks with increasing working memory loads, until working memory capacity was reached. Because children's working memory capacity limit was half of that for adults, the plateau occurred at lower loads for children. Had a parametric increase in load not been used, this would have given an impression of less activation overall and less load-dependent activation for children relative to adults. Our findings suggest that young children and adults recruit similar frontoparietal networks at working memory loads that do not exceed capacity and highlight the need to consider behavioral performance differences when interpreting developmental differences in neural activation.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 05/2015; 27(9):1-14. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00824 · 4.09 Impact Factor
Show more