Article

A-317491, a novel potent and selective non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors, reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat.

Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6123, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 12/2002; 99(26):17179-84. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.252537299
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are highly localized on peripheral and central processes of sensory afferent nerves, and activation of these channels contributes to the pronociceptive effects of ATP. A-317491 is a novel non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor activation. A-317491 potently blocked recombinant human and rat P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor-mediated calcium flux (Ki = 22-92 nM) and was highly selective (IC50 >10 microM) over other P2 receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. A-317491 also blocked native P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Blockade of P2X3 containing channels was stereospecific because the R-enantiomer (A-317344) of A-317491 was significantly less active at P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors. A-317491 dose-dependently (ED50 = 30 micromolkg s.c.) reduced complete Freund's adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia in the rat. A-317491 was most potent (ED50 = 10-15 micromolkg s.c.) in attenuating both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after chronic nerve constriction injury. The R-enantiomer, A-317344, was inactive in these chronic pain models. Although active in chronic pain models, A-317491 was ineffective (ED50 >100 micromolkg s.c.) in reducing nociception in animal models of acute pain, postoperative pain, and visceral pain. The present data indicate that a potent and selective antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors effectively reduces both nerve injury and chronic inflammatory nociception, but P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor activation may not be a major mediator of acute, acute inflammatory, or visceral pain.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: James S Polakowski, Sep 15, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
163 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: P2X receptors are cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of ATP. These receptors are present in many excitable cells, including neurons, striated muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. They mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are thought to be involved in neuropathic pain, inflammation, and cell damage following ischemia-reperfusion injuries. P2X receptors are thus a target for the development of new therapeutics to treat chronic pain and inflammation. In this study, we characterized the inhibition caused by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a natural metabolite of vitamin B6 (MC-1), of P2X2, P2X4, P2X7, and P2X2/3 receptors stably expressed in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. We also tested a new approach using VC6.1, a modified cameleon calcium-sensitive fluorescent protein, to characterize the inhibition of P2X2 and P2X2/3. MC-1 blocked these two P2X receptors, with an IC50 of 7 and 13 μmol/L, respectively. P2X2 exhibited the highest affinity for VC6.1, and the chimeric receptor P2X2/3, the lowest. The patch-clamp and imaging approaches gave similar results and indicated that VC6.1 may be useful for high throughput drug screening. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an efficient P2X blocker and can be classified as a P2X antagonist.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 03/2014; 92(3):189-96. DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2013-0404 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates and sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X and P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways and participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs), linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice and knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity and visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory and visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action and are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral and central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral "hollow" organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation and pain (symptoms) as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs), and how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary and airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional and sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs and symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:267. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00267 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain remains an area of considerable unmet clinical need, and this is particularly true of pain associated with bone metastases, in part because existing analgesic drugs show only limited efficacy in many patients and in part because of the adverse side effects associated with these agents. An important issue is that the nature and roles of the algogens produced in bone that drive pain-signalling systems remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adenosine triphosphate is one such key mediator through actions on P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors, which are expressed selectively on primary afferent nocioceptors, including those innervating the bone. Using a well-established rat model of bone cancer pain, AF-353, a recently described potent and selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, was administered orally to rats and found to produce highly significant prevention and reversal of bone cancer pain behaviour. This attenuation occurred without apparent modification of the disease, since bone destruction induced by rat MRMT-1 carcinoma cells was not significantly altered by AF-353. Using in vivo electrophysiology, evidence for a central site of action was provided by dose-dependent reductions in electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli-evoked dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability following direct AF-353 administration onto the spinal cord of bone cancer animals. A peripheral site of action was also suggested by studies on the extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate from MRMT-1 carcinoma cells. Moreover, elevated phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons, induced by co-cultured MRMT-1 carcinoma cells, was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-353. These data suggest that blockade of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors on both the peripheral and central terminals of nocioceptors contributes to analgesic efficacy in a model of bone cancer pain. Thus, systemic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonists with central nervous system penetration may offer a promising therapeutic tool in treating bone cancer pain.
    Brain 09/2010; 133(9):2549-64. DOI:10.1093/brain/awq194 · 10.23 Impact Factor